Map of the world

  • Where to watch BIRDS and

  • other wildlife in the world
  • The Endemic and near-endemic Birds of the World

    Photograph of Black-billed Streamertail

    You will have to visit Jamaica if you want to see a Black-billed Streamertail. This fantastic image was captured by Dubi Shapiro.

    These lists are based on the Handbook of the Birds of the World and the BirdLife International Checklist of the Birds of the World. Version 4. (December 2019), del Hoyo, J. & Collar, N.J.


    Alaska (USA) 1
    McKay’s Bunting (nests on two Bering Sea islands (St. Matthew and Hall), and winters to the west coast of Alaska).

    Alaska and Russia 3
    Emperor Goose, Spectacled Eider and Red-legged Kittiwake.

    Alaska, Russia and Japan 1
    Red-faced Cormorant.

    West coast of North America, Russia and Japan 1
    Rock Sandpiper.

    Canada and USA 42
    (Seven grouse, a crane and five sparrows)
    Ruffed Grouse, White-tailed Ptarmigan, Dusky Grouse, Sooty Grouse, Spruce Grouse, Franklin’s (Spruce) Grouse, (Greater) Sage Grouse, Sharp-tailed Grouse, Trumpeter Swan, American Black Duck, Yellow Rail, Whooping Crane, American Woodcock, Thayer’s (Iceland) Gull, Marbled Murrelet, Barred Owl, Red-headed Woodpecker, Red-bellied Woodpecker, White-headed Woodpecker, Grey Jay, Black-billed Magpie, Fish Crow, Northwestern Crow, Blue Jay, Tufted Titmouse, Black-capped Chickadee, Boreal Chickadee, Chestnut-backed Chickadee, Red-breasted Nuthatch, Pacific Wren, Winter Wren, Brown Thrasher, Grey-crowned Rosy-finch, Smith’s Longspur, Eastern Towhee, Red Fox-sparrow, American Tree Sparrow, Le Conte’s Sparrow, Nelson’s Sparrow, Henslow’s Sparrow, Rusty Blackbird and Common Grackle.

    Photograph of Blue Jay

    Blue Jay in Central Park, New York, by Simon Colenutt. The beautiful Blue Jay occurs in Canada and the lower 48 states of the USA from the east to the mid-west south to Texas.

    Canada, USA and Mexico 77
    California Quail, Brandt’s Cormorant, Black Oystercatcher, Mountain Plover, Black Turnstone, Bonaparte’s Gull, Heermann’s Gull, Western Gull, California Gull, Cassin’s Auklet, Scripps’s Murrelet, Guadalupe Murrelet, Northern Pygmy-owl, Western Screech-owl, Eastern Screech-owl, Spotted Owl, Bald Eagle, Red-shouldered Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, Williamson’s Sapsucker, Red-naped Sapsucker, Red-breasted Sapsucker, Lewis’s Woodpecker, Prairie Falcon, Pacific-slope Flycatcher, Cordilleran Flycatcher, (American) Grey Flycatcher, Cassin’s Vireo, Loggerhead Shrike, Clark’s Nutcracker, American Crow, Mountain Chickadee, Pygmy Nuthatch, White-breasted Nuthatch, Rock Wren, Canyon Wren, Sedge Wren, Marsh Wren, Carolina Wren, Bewick’s Wren, Sage Thrasher, Western Bluebird, Mountain Bluebird, Townsend’s Solitaire, Varied Thrush, Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Sprague’s Pipit, Evening Grosbeak, House Finch, Cassin’s Finch, Purple Finch, American Goldfinch, Chestnut-collared Longspur, McCown’s Longspur, Clay-coloured Sparrow, Field Sparrow, Brewer’s Sparrow, Lark Sparrow, Lark Bunting, Dark-eyed Junco, Harris’s Sparrow, White-throated Sparrow, White-crowned Sparrow, Golden-crowned Sparrow, Sooty Sparrow, Slate-coloured Sparrow, Vesper Sparrow, Baird’s Sparrow, Song Sparrow, Swamp Sparrow, Yellow-headed Blackbird, Western Meadowlark, Brewer’s Blackbird, Nashville Warbler, Black-throated Grey Warbler, Black-headed Grosbeak and Lazuli Bunting.

    (The ranges of Flammulated Owl, (American) Dusky Flycatcher, Hutton’s Vireo, American Bushtit, Golden-crowned Kinglet, Pine Siskin, Spotted Towhee and Bullock’s Oriole also reach Guatemala)

    USA (Lower 48) 16
    (Two prairie-chickens, a nuthatch and two rosy-finches)
    Gunnison (Sage) Grouse, Greater Prairie-chicken, Lesser Prairie-chicken, Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Yellow-billed Magpie, Florida Scrub-jay, Island Scrub-jay (Santa Cruz Island off California), Carolina Chickadee, Brown-headed Nuthatch, Black Rosy-finch, Brown-capped Rosy-finch, Cassia Crossbill (South Hills and Albion Mountains, south Idaho), Bachman’s Sparrow, Seaside Sparrow, Saltmarsh Sparrow and Boat-tailed Grackle.

    USA and Bermuda 1
    Bermuda Petrel.

    USA and Mexico 79
    (Five hummingbirds, a condor, six thrashers and 11 sparrows) Mountain Quail, Scaled Quail, Gambel’s Quail, Montezuma Quail, Mottled Duck, Mexican Duck, Broad-billed Hummingbird, Blue-throated Mountain-gem (Hummingbird), Lucifer Hummingbird, Costa’s Hummingbird, Allen’s Hummingbird, Greater Roadrunner, Ridgway’s Rail, Ashy Storm-petrel, Townsend’s Storm-petrel, Ainley’s Storm-petrel, Black-vented Shearwater, Yellow-footed Gull, Craveri’s Murrelet, Mountain (Northern) Pygmy-owl, Elf Owl, California Condor, Eared Quetzal, Coppery-tailed Trogon, Gilded Flicker, Gila Woodpecker, Golden-fronted Woodpecker, Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Arizona Woodpecker, Thick-billed Kingbird, Grey Vireo, Black-capped Vireo, Tamaulipas Crow, Chihuahuan Raven, Pinyon Jay, Mexican Jay, California (Western) Scrub-jay, Woodhouse’s Scrub-jay, Bridled Titmouse, Black-crested Titmouse, Juniper Titmouse, Oak Titmouse, Mexican Chickadee, Verdin, Wrentit, California Gnatcatcher, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher, Black-capped Gnatcatcher, Cactus Wren, Curve-billed Thrasher, Long-billed Thrasher, Bendire’s Thrasher, California Thrasher, Crissal Thrasher, Le Conte’s Thrasher, Phainopepla, Lawrence’s Goldfinch, Black-chinned Sparrow, Black-throated Sparrow, Five-striped Sparrow, Rufous-winged Sparrow, Cassin’s Sparrow, Green-tailed Towhee, Canyon Towhee, California Towhee, Abert’s Towhee, Rufous-crowned Sparrow, Thick-billed Sparrow, Sagebrush Sparrow, Bell’s Sparrow, Belding’s (Savannah) Sparrow, Large-billed (Savannah) Sparrow, Scott’s Oriole, Audubon’s Oriole, Tricoloured Blackbird, Colima Warbler, Lucy’s Warbler, Virginia’s Warbler and Pyrrhuloxia.

    (The ranges of Cassin’s Kingbird, Yellow-eyed Junco and Varied Bunting also reach Guatemala. The range of Hooded Oriole also reaches Belize)

    Photograph of Montezuma Quail

    Montezuma Quail in Arizona by Dubi Shapiro. This mainly Mexican species also occurs in southeast Arizona, New Mexico and Texas.


    MEXICO 100 (+ 4 On Cozumel Island and 6 on Baja Peninsula = 110, + 13 on other offshore islands = 123)
    (16 hummingbirds, 11 wrens and seven jays on mainland)
    Widespread 14
    White-naped Swift, Curve-winged Sabrewing, Bumblebee Hummingbird, Cinereous (Mexican Barred) Owl, White-striped Woodcreeper, Spotted Wren, Blue Mockingbird, Aztec Thrush, Russet Nightingale-thrush, Rufous-backed Thrush, Collared Towhee, Striped Sparrow, Hooded Yellowthroat and Red Warbler.

    (Sinaloa Martin is present in summer (the winter range is unknown). Imperial Woodpecker is presumed extinct).

    Baja Peninsula 6
    Xantus’s Hummingbird, Baja (Mountain) Pygmy-owl, Grey Thrasher, San Lucas (American) Robin, Baird’s (Yellow-eyed) Junco and Belding’s Yellowthroat.

    Tres Marias Islands, off west coast 3
    Tres Marias Hummingbird, Tres Marias (Yellow-headed) Amazon and Tres Marias (Red-breasted) Chat.

    San Benito Island, off west Baja 1
    San Benito (Savannah) Sparrow.

    Guadalupe Island, off west Baja 1
    Guadalupe (Dark-eyed) Junco. (Guadalupe Storm-petrel has not been recorded since 1912).

    Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago 7
    Socorro Dove, Socorro (Green) Parakeet, Socorro Wren, Socorro Mockingbird, Socorro (Spotted) Towhee, Rufous-capped Brush-finch and Socorro (Tropical) Parula.

    (Townsend’s Shearwater nests on Socorro and ranges to Baja and the southwest coast of Mexico).

    Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago 1
    Clarion Wren.

    North 1
    Worthen’s Sparrow.

    Northeast 3
    Tawny-collared Nightjar, Tamaulipas Pygmy-owl and Maroon-fronted Parrot.

    East 10
    Tuxtla Quail-dove, Long-tailed Sabrewing, Mexican Sheartail, Blue-crowned Motmot, Bronze-winged (Golden-olive) Woodpecker, Red-crowned Amazon (populations in north Mexico and south Texas may be wild), Sumichrast’s Wren (small range), Rufous-naped Wren, Altamira Yellowthroat and Crimson-collared Grosbeak.

    Yucatan Peninsula 2
    Yucatan (White-lored) Gnatcatcher and Yucatan Wren.

    Cozumel Island 4
    Cozumel Emerald, Cozumel Vireo, Cozumel Wren and Cozumel Thrasher.

    Central 5
    Mexican (King) Rail, Strickland’s Woodpecker, Ultramarine Jay, Black-backed Oriole and Black-polled Yellowthroat (small range).

    West 33
    Western Thicket Tinamou, Rufous-bellied Chachalaca, Eared Poorwill, Mexican Hermit, Short-crested Coquette (small range), Golden-crowned Emerald, White-tailed Hummingbird (small range), Mexican Woodnymph, Mexican Squirrel-cuckoo, Colima Pygmy-owl, Balsas Screech-owl, Citreoline Trogon, Grey-crowned Woodpecker, Golden-cheeked Woodpecker, Lilac-crowned Amazon, Mexican Parrotlet, Thick-billed Parrot, Western Grey-collared Becard, Flammulated Flycatcher, Golden Greenlet (Vireo), Sinaloa Crow, Black-throated Magpie-jay, San Blas Jay, Sclater’s (Rufous-naped) Wren, Happy Wren, Sinaloa Wren, Green-striped Brush-finch (also central), Rusty-crowned Ground-sparrow, Sierra Madre Sparrow (also central), Orange-breasted Bunting, Slate-blue Seedeater, Red-headed Tanager and Cinnamon-rumped (White-collared) Seedeater.

    Northwest 4
    Elegant Quail, Green Parakeet, Tufted Jay and Purplish-backed Jay.

    Southwest 25
    West Mexican Chachalaca, Banded Quail, Long-tailed Wood-partridge, Spot-breasted Quail, White-fronted Swift, Dusky Hummingbird, Turquoise-crowned Hummingbird, Oaxaca (Blue-capped) Hummingbird, Cinnamon-sided (Green-fronted) Hummingbird, Beautiful Hummingbird, Wagler’s (Emerald) Toucanet, Grey-breasted Woodpecker, Pileated Flycatcher, Slaty Vireo, Dwarf Vireo, White-throated Jay, Boucard’s Wren, Ocellated Thrasher, Cinnamon-tailed Sparrow (small range), Black-chested Sparrow, Bridled Sparrow, White-throated Towhee, Oaxaca Sparrow, Fuertes’s (Orchard) Oriole (winter/east in summer) and Rose-bellied (Rosita’s) Bunting.

    South 3
    Dwarf Jay, Nava’s Wren (small range) and Grey-barred Wren.

    Mexico and Belize 2
    Yellow-lored Amazon and Orange Oriole.

    Mexico, Belize and nearby islands 1
    Yucatan Woodpecker (Isla Cozumel and Guanaja Island, Honduras).

    (The range of Yucatan Vireo also reaches Belize, as well as Islas Cozumel and Mujeres, the Belize Cays, the Honduras Bay Islands and Grand Cayman in the Cayman Islands of the Caribbean)

    Mexico, Belize and Guatemala 8
    Ocellated Turkey, Yucatan Poorwill, Yucatan Flycatcher, Yucatan Jay, Yucatan Rough-winged Swallow, Black Catbird, Grey-throated Chat and Rose-throated Tanager.

    Mexico, Belize and Honduras 1
    Yucatan Nightjar.

    Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras 3
    Mayan (Black-faced) Antthrush, Green-backed Sparrow and Black-throated Shrike-tanager.

    Mexico and Guatemala 15
    Horned Guan, Green-fronted Hummingbird, Bearded Screech-owl, Russet-crowned Motmot, Pine Flycatcher, Chestnut-sided Shrike-vireo, Giant Wren, Grey Silky-flycatcher, Hooded Grosbeak, Black-capped Siskin, Goldman’s Warbler, Pink-headed Warbler, Yellow Grosbeak, Red-breasted Chat and Azure-rumped Tanager.

    (The ranges of Belted Flycatcher, Grey-crowned (White-eared) Ground-sparrow and Yellow-winged Cacique also reach El Salvador)

    Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras 6
    Guatemalan (Northern) Pygmy-owl, Fulvous Owl, Blue-throated Motmot, Black-capped Swallow, Bar-winged Oriole and Golden-browed Warbler.

    Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador 6
    Wine-throated Hummingbird, Black-throated Jay, Unicoloured Jay, Brown-backed Solitaire, Rufous-collared Thrush and Prevost’s (White-faced) Ground-sparrow.

    Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua 3
    Gould’s (Spotted) Nightingale-thrush, Blue-crowned Chlorophonia and Crescent-chested Warbler.

    Other Mexico and Central American Endemics 111
    Thicket Tinamou, Slaty-breasted Tinamou, White-bellied Chachalaca, Highland Guan, Buffy-crowned Wood-partridge, Singing Quail, Spotted Wood-quail, Black-throated Bobwhite, Ocellated Quail, Short-billed Pigeon, White-faced Quail-dove, Lesser Ground-cuckoo, Lesser Roadrunner, Great Swallow-tailed Swift, Mexican Violetear, Green-breasted Mango, Black-crested Coquette, Emerald-chinned Hummingbird, Plain-capped Starthroat, Garnet-throated Hummingbird, Amethyst-throated Hummingbird, Green-throated Mountain-gem, Sparkling-tailed Hummingbird, Slender Sheartail, Canivet's Emerald, Garden Emerald, Wedge-tailed Sabrewing, Rufous Sabrewing, Violet Sabrewing, Stripe-tailed Hummingbird, Blue-tailed Hummingbird, Azure-crowned Hummingbird, Buff-bellied Hummingbird, Cinnamon Hummingbird, White-bellied Emerald, Ruddy Crake, Russet-naped Wood-rail, Pacific Screech-owl, Unspotted Saw-whet Owl, Black-headed Trogon, Mountain Trogon, Resplendent Quetzal, Turquoise-browed Motmot, Lesson's Motmot, Keel-billed Motmot, Emerald Toucanet, Chestnut-coloured Woodpecker, Pale-billed Woodpecker, Pacific Parrotlet, Green Parakeet, Orange-fronted Parakeet, White-crowned Parrot, White-fronted Parrot, Tawny-winged Woodcreeper, Ivory-billed Woodcreeper, Spot-crowned Woodcreeper, Rufous-breasted Spinetail, Stub-tailed Spadebill, Northern Bentbill, Yellow-bellied Tyrannulet, White-throated Flycatcher, Yellowish Flycatcher, Nutting's Flycatcher, Northern Schiffornis, Eastern Grey-collared Becard, Lovely Cotinga, Long-tailed Manakin, White-collared Manakin, Green Shrike-vireo, Mangrove Vireo, Azure-hooded Jay, White-throated Magpie-jay, Mangrove Swallow, Rufous-naped Wren, Cabanis's Wren, Rufous-and-white Wren, Banded Wren, Spot-breasted Wren, White-bellied Wren, Nightingale Wren, White-lored Gnatcatcher, Slate-coloured Solitaire, Black-headed Nightingale-thrush, Ruddy-capped Nightingale-thrush, Mountain Thrush, Elegant Euphonia, Yellow-throated Euphonia, Scrub Euphonia, Olive-backed Euphonia, Black-headed Siskin, Stripe-headed Sparrow, Rusty Sparrow, Montezuma Oropendola, Yellow-backed Oriole, Black-vented Oriole, Black-cowled Oriole, Streak-backed Oriole, Spot-breasted Oriole, Melodious Blackbird, Grey-crowned Yellowthroat, Rufous-capped Warbler, Fan-tailed Warbler, Flame-coloured Tanager, Black-faced Grosbeak, Blue Bunting, Cinnamon-bellied Flowerpiercer, Thick-billed Seed-finch, Black-headed Saltator, Yellow-winged Tanager, Crimson-collared Tanager and Scarlet-rumped (Passerini's) Tanager.

    Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua 1
    Red-throated Parakeet.

    Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua 1
    Bushy-crested Jay.

    Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama 1
    Grey-headed Piprites.

    Honduran Emerald.

    Honduras and Nicaragua 1
    Green-breasted Mountain-gem.

    Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica 3
    Hoffman's Woodpecker, Streak-crowned Antvireo and White-eared Ground-sparrow.

    Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama 8
    Black-eared Wood-quail, Snowcap, Rufous-winged Woodpecker, Snowy Cotinga, Three-wattled Bellbird, Stripe-breasted Wren, Black-throated Wren and White-throated Shrike-tanager.

    (The range of Carmiol's Tanager just reaches Colombia)

    Nicaragua and Costa Rica 2
    Tawny-chested Flycatcher and Nicaraguan Grackle.

    Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama 7
    Purple-throated Mountain-gem, Vermiculated Screech-owl, Crimson-fronted Parakeet, Bare-necked Umbrellabird, Canebrake Wren, Yellow-crowned Euphonia and Nicaraguan Seed-finch.

    Mainland 5
    Coppery-headed Emerald (also recorded in Nicaragua), Mangrove Hummingbird, Grey-tailed (White-throated) Mountain-gem, Costa Rican (Cabanis’s) Ground-sparrow and Black-cheeked Ant-tanager.

    (Guanacaste Hummingbird, known from Volcan de Miravalles in the northwest, is probably extinct)

    Cocos Island 3
    Cocos Cuckoo, Cocos Flycatcher and Cocos Finch.

    Costa Rica and Panama 74
    (13 hummingbirds, two trogons, two cotingas and two silky-flycatchers)
    Black Guan, Black-breasted Wood-quail, Buff-fronted Quail-dove, Purplish-backed Quail-dove, Chiriqui Quail-dove, Dusky Nightjar, Costa Rican Swift, Veraguas Mango, White-crested Coquette, Garden Emerald, Black-bellied Hummingbird, White-tailed Emerald, Charming Hummingbird, Snowy-bellied Hummingbird, Talamanca (Magnificent) Hummingbird, Fiery-throated Hummingbird, White-bellied Mountain-gem, Magenta-throated Woodstar, Volcano Hummingbird, Scintillant Hummingbird, Costa Rican Pygmy-owl, Lattice-tailed Trogon, Baird’s Trogon, Fiery-billed Aracari, Prong-billed Barbet, Golden-naped Woodpecker, Red-fronted Parrotlet, Sulphur-winged Parakeet, Black-hooded Antshrike, Dull-mantled Antbird, Silvery-fronted Tapaculo, Southern Spot-crowned Woodcreeper, Buffy Tuftedcheek, Streak-breasted Treehunter, Chiriqui (Buff-throated) Foliage-gleaner, Ruddy Treerunner, Orange-collared Manakin, Turquoise Cotinga, Yellow-billed Cotinga, Olive-streaked Flycatcher, Black-capped Flycatcher, Dark Pewee, Ochraceous Pewee, Yellow-green (Scrub) Greenlet, Yellow-winged Vireo, Silvery-throated Jay, Ochraceous Wren (range also probably reaches Colombia), Timberline Wren, Riverside Wren, Isthmian (Plain) Wren, Black-faced Solitaire, Black-billed Nightingale-thrush, Sooty Thrush, Black-and-yellow Silky-flycatcher, Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher, Golden-browed Chlorophonia, Spot-crowned Euphonia, Sooty-capped Bush-tanager, Costa Rican Brush-finch, Yellow-thighed Finch, Large-footed Finch, Volcano Junco, Wrenthrush, Flame-throated Warbler, Chiriqui Yellowthroat, Black-cheeked Warbler, Black-eared (Costa Rican/Three-striped) Warbler, Collared Whitestart, Black-thighed Grosbeak, Sulphur-rumped Tanager, Cherrie’s (Scarlet-rumped) Tanager, Peg-billed Finch, Slaty Flowerpiercer and Spangle-cheeked Tanager.

    (The orange-bellied race of Collared Trogon, endemic to Costa Rica and Panama, is considered to be a full species by some taxonomists)

    Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia 5
    Blue-throated (Emerald) Toucanet, Tawny-capped Euphonia, Sooty-faced Finch, Black-and-yellow Tanager and Blue-and-gold Tanager.

    Photograph of Wrenthrush

    A superb image of the unique Wrenthrush at Cabanas Los Quetzales in Panama by Dubi Shapiro. Neither a wren nor a thrush, in a family of its own, this species also known as Zeledonia after José Castulo Zeledón who described the bird to science in 1907, lives in the highland forests of Costa Rica and western Panama.

    PANAMA 9
    Brown-backed (Grey-headed) Dove, White-throated Mountain-gem, Glow-throated Hummingbird, Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker, Azuero (Painted) Parakeet, Coiba Spinetail, Yellow-green Tyrannulet, Orange-throated Bush-tanager and Yellow-green Finch.

    Panama and Colombia 27
    Choco Tinamou, Tacarcuna Wood-quail, Russet-crowned Quail-dove, Pirre Hummingbird, Violet-capped Hummingbird, Sapphire-throated Hummingbird (also recorded in Costa Rica), Dusky-backed Jacamar, Grey-cheeked Nunlet, Spot-crowned Barbet, Black Antshrike, Spiny-faced Antshrike, Tacarcuna Tapaculo, Beautiful Treerunner, Golden-collared Manakin, Southern Bentbill, Black-billed Flycatcher, White-headed Wren, Sooty-headed Wren, Varied Solitaire, Tacarcuna Bush-tanager (Chlorospingus), Pirre Bush-tanager (Chlorospingus), Black-headed Brush-finch, Black Oropendola, Pirre Warbler, Tacarcuna (Three-striped) Warbler, Viridian Dacnis and Green-naped Tanager.

    Panama, Colombia and Ecuador 28
    Tooth-billed Hummingbird, Greenish Puffleg, Humboldt’s Hummingbird (Sapphire), Purple-throated Woodstar, Choco Screech-owl, Black-breasted Puffbird, Barred Puffbird, Stripe-billed (Collared) Aracari, Splendid (Crimson-bellied) Woodpecker, Sapayoa, Pacific Antwren, Short-tailed (Chestnut-backed) Antbird, Choco Tapaculo, Double-banded Greytail, Choco (Green) Manakin, Blue Cotinga, Black-tipped Cotinga, Choco Grey Elaenia, Choco Sirystes, Slate-throated Gnatcatcher, Stripe-throated Wren, Dagua Thrush, Yellow-collared Chlorophonia, Fulvous-vented Euphonia, Pacific (Subtropical) Cacique, Lemon-spectacled Tanager, Scarlet-browed Tanager and Grey-and-gold Tanager.

    Panama, Colombia and Venezuela 3
    Saffron-headed Parrot, Russet-winged Schiffornis and Yellow-browed Shrike-vireo.


    Widespread 12
    West Indian Whistling-duck, Plain Pigeon, Key West Quail-dove, Antillean Palm-swift, Puerto Rican (Antillean) Mango, Loggerhead Kingbird, Bahama Mockingbird, Rufous-throated Solitaire, Eastern Red-legged Thrush, Lesser Antillean Euphonia, Greater Antillean Grackle and Greater Antillean Bullfinch.

    Widespread near-endemics 8
    White-crowned Pigeon (throughout the Caribbean with the range extending to Florida, and on islands off Mexico and Belize), Scaly-naped Pigeon (throughout the Caribbean with the range extending to islands off Venezuela), Zenaida Dove (throughout the Caribbean with the range extending to Florida, and the coast of the Yucatan and its offshore islands), Antillean Nighthawk (a summer visitor (May to August) throughout the Caribbean with the range extending to Florida and the Dry Tortugas near there. The winter range is unknown but probably South America), Caribbean Elaenia (Resident in the Cayman and Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico and the Lesser Antilles, with the range extending to Trinidad, Aruba, Curacao, Bonaire, and islands off the Yucatan and Belize), Thick-billed Vireo (Resident on the Bahamas, Ile Tortue off Hispaniola, the Cayman Islands and Providencia, and a migrant to coastal north-central Cuba, with the range extending to islands off Nicaragua), Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Resident in the Bahamas, Beata Island off Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and the Lesser Antilles south to St Lucia, with the range extending to Bonaire) and Western Spindalis (Resident on the Bahamas, Cuba and Grand Cayman with the range extending to Isla Cozumel off the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico).

    Inagua Woodstar (Great Inagua), Bahama Lizard-cuckoo, Bahama Swallow, Bahama Nuthatch (may have become extinct due to Hurricane Dorian in 2019), Northern Red-legged Thrush, Bahama Oriole, Bahama Yellowthroat and Bahama Warbler.

    Bahamas and Turks & Caicos Islands 1
    Bahama Woodstar.

    Bahamas and Cuba 3
    Cuban Emerald, Cuban Pewee and Olive-capped Warbler.

    Bahamas, Cuba and Cayman Islands 3
    West Indian Woodpecker, Cuban Amazon and La Sagra’s Flycatcher.

    Turks & Caicos Islands, and Cuba 1
    Cuban Crow.

    CUBA 30
    Blue-headed Quail-dove, Grey-headed Quail-dove, Cuban (Greater Antillean) Nightjar, Bee Hummingbird, Cuban (Greater) Lizard-cuckoo, Zapata Rail (very rarely observed), Cuban Pygmy-owl, Bare-legged Screech-owl, Cuban (Hook-billed) Kite (very rare at far east end of island), Gundlach’s Hawk, Cuban Black Hawk, Cuban Trogon, Cuban Tody, Fernandina’s Flicker, Cuban Green Woodpecker, Cuban Parakeet, Giant Kingbird, Cuban Vireo, Cuban Palm Crow, Cuban Gnatcatcher, Zapata Wren, Cuban Solitaire, Zapata Sparrow, Yellow-headed Warbler, Oriente Warbler (last two species now in a separate family), Cuban (Black-cowled) Oriole, Red-shouldered Blackbird, Cuban Blackbird, Cuban Bullfinch and Cuban Grassquit.

    Photograph of Cuban Tody

    The brilliant Cuban Tody by Dave Irving. One of five very similar-looking species endemic to the Caribbean islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola (two species) and Puerto Rico.

    Cuba and Cayman Islands 1
    Western Red-legged Thrush.

    Cuba and Haiti 1
    Tawny-shouldered Blackbird.

    HISPANIOLA (Haiti and Dominican Republic) 31 (+ 3 single-country endemics = 34)
    Least Poorwill (Pauraque), Hispaniolan (Greater Antillean) Nightjar, Hispaniolan (Antillean) Mango, Hispaniolan Emerald, Bay-breasted Cuckoo, Hispaniolan Lizard-cuckoo, Ashy-faced Owl, Hispaniolan Trogon, Narrow-billed Tody, Broad-billed Tody, Antillean Piculet, Hispaniolan Woodpecker, Hispaniolan Amazon, Hispaniolan Parakeet, Hispaniolan (Greater Antillean) Elaenia, Hispaniolan Pewee, Flat-billed Vireo, White-necked Crow, Hispaniolan Palm Crow, La Selle Thrush, Palmchat, Hispaniolan (Antillean) Euphonia, Hispaniolan Crossbill, Antillean Siskin, Hispaniolan Oriole, Black-crowned Palm-tanager, White-winged Warbler, Green-tailed Warbler, Hispaniolan Spindalis, Western Chat-tanager and Eastern Chat-tanager.

    HAITI 1
    Grey-crowned Palm-tanager.

    White-fronted Quail-dove and Ridgway’s Hawk (small range).

    Hispaniola and Jamaica 3
    Vervain Hummingbird, Stolid Flycatcher and Golden Swallow.

    JAMAICA 31
    Ring-tailed Pigeon, Crested Quail-dove, Jamaican Poorwill, Jamaican Mango, Red-billed Streamertail, Black-billed Streamertail, Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo, Jamaican Lizard-cuckoo, Jamaican Owl, Jamaican Tody, Jamaican Woodpecker, Black-billed Amazon, Yellow-billed Amazon, Jamaican (Olive-throated) Parakeet, Jamaican Becard, Large Jamaican (Greater Antillean) Elaenia, Small Jamaican Elaenia, Sad Flycatcher, Rufous-tailed Flycatcher, Jamaican Pewee, Blue Mountain Vireo, Jamaican Vireo, Jamaican Crow, White-eyed Thrush, White-chinned Thrush, Jamaican Euphonia, Jamaican Blackbird, Arrowhead Warbler, Jamaican Spindalis, Orangequit and Yellow-shouldered Grassquit.

    (Jamaican Petrel is presumed extinct)

    Jamaica and San Andres Island (off Nicaragua) 1
    Jamaican Oriole.

    Grand Cayman Bullfinch.

    Cayman Islands and Swan Island (off Honduras) 1
    Vitelline Warbler.

    Puerto Rican Nightjar, Green Mango, Puerto Rican Emerald, Puerto Rican Lizard-cuckoo, Puerto Rican Tody, Puerto Rican Woodpecker, Puerto Rican Amazon, Puerto Rican Vireo, Puerto Rican (Antillean) Euphonia, Puerto Rican Oriole, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird, Elfin Woods Warbler, Adelaide’s Warbler, Puerto Rican Spindalis, Puerto Rican Tanager (in a family of its own) and Puerto Rican Bullfinch.

    Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands 2
    Puerto Rican Screech-owl and Puerto Rican Flycatcher.

    Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles 4
    Bridled Quail-dove, Green-throated Carib, Antillean Crested Hummingbird and Lesser Antillean Pewee.

    Widespread 14
    Lesser Antillean Swift, Purple-throated Carib, Blue-headed Hummingbird (only Dominica and Martinique), Lesser Antillean Flycatcher, Grenada Flycatcher (only St Vincent, The Grenadines and Grenada), White-breasted Thrasher (only Martinque and St Lucia), Scaly-breasted Thrasher, Brown Trembler, Grey Trembler (only Martinique and St Lucia), Forest Thrush, Lesser Antillean Euphonia, Plumbeous Warbler (only Guadeloupe and Dominica), Lesser Antillean Saltator and Lesser Antillean Bullfinch.

    Barbuda Warbler.

    Montserrat Oriole.

    Guadeloupe Woodpecker.

    Red-necked Amazon and Imperial Amazon.

    Martinique Oriole.

    ST LUCIA 4
    Saint Lucia Amazon, Saint Lucia Oriole, Saint Lucia Warbler and Saint Lucia Black Finch.

    (The last reliable sighting of Semper’s Warbler was in 1961)

    Saint Vincent Amazon, Whistling Warbler and Saint Vincent (Lesser Antillean) Tanager.

    Grenada Dove and Grenada (Lesser Antillean) Tanager.

    Barbados Bullfinch.

    Trinidad Piping-guan, Trinidad Motmot and Tobago (Scrub) Greenlet.

    Providencia and San Andres Islands off Nicaragua (belonging to Colombia) 2
    Providencia Vireo and San Andes Vireo.


    COLOMBIA 68 (93 including Santa Marta Mountains (25))
    (Of the 93; 18 hummingbirds, five antpittas, seven wrens and eight tanagers)
    Cauca Guan, Chestnut-winged Chachalaca, Colombian Chachalaca, Blue-billed Curassow, Chestnut Wood-quail, Gorgeted Wood-quail, Tolima Dove, Green-bearded Helmetcrest, Buffy Helmetcrest, Gorgeted Puffleg (Serrania del Pinche, southwest), Colourful Puffleg, Black Inca, Glittering (Dusky) Starfrontlet, Golden-bellied Starfrontlet, Chiribiquete Emerald (south), Tolima Blossomcrown, Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird, Indigo-capped Hummingbird, Sapphire-bellied Hummingbird, Bogota Rail, Sooty-capped Puffbird, White-mantled Barbet, Greyish Piculet, Beautiful Woodpecker, Rufous-fronted Parakeet, Indigo-winged Parrot (tiny range on west slope of central Andes), Turquoise-winged Parrotlet, Sinu (Painted) Parakeet, Upper Magdalena (Maroon-tailed) Parakeet, Brown-breasted Parakeet, Yellow-eared Parrot (probably extinct in Ecuador), Parker’s Antbird, East Andean Antbird, Cundinamarca Antpitta, Northern Tawny Antpitta, Urrao Antpitta, Brown-banded Antpitta, Magdalena Tapaculo (two tiny areas, in north and south), Stiles’s Tapaculo, Tatama Tapaculo, Paramillo Tapaculo, Silvery-throated Spinetail, Chestnut-capped Piha (tiny range in central Andes), Antioquia Bristle-tyrant, Apical Flycatcher, Apolinar’s Wren, Colombian (Speckle-breasted) Wren, Antioquia Wren, Niceforo’s Wren, Munchique Wood-wren, Velvet-fronted Euphonia, Moustached Brush-finch, Yellow-headed Brush-finch, Dusky-headed Brush-finch, Antioquia Brush-finch (tiny range), Baudo Oropendola, Bronze-brown (Bronzed) Cowbird, Red-bellied Grackle, Mountain Grackle, Golden-fronted Whitestart, Sooty Ant-tanager, Crested Ant-tanager, Turquoise Dacnis, Flame-rumped Tanager, Chestnut-bellied Flowerpiercer, Multicoloured Tanager, Gold-ringed Tanager and Black-and-gold Tanager.

    COLOMBIA - Santa Marta Mountains 25
    Black-backed Thornbill, Blue-bearded Helmetcrest, White-tailed Starfrontlet, Santa Marta Blossomcrown, Santa Marta Sabrewing, Santa Marta Woodstar, Santa Marta Screech-owl, Santa Marta Parakeet, Santa Marta Antbird, Santa Marta Antpitta, Santa Marta Tapaculo, Brown-rumped Tapaculo, Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner, Rusty-headed Spinetail, Coopman’s (Golden-faced) Tyrannulet, Santa Marta Bush-tyrant, Santa Marta Wren, Hermit (Grey-breasted) Wood-wren, Sierra Nevada Brush-finch, Santa Marta Brush-finch, Santa Marta Warbler, White-lored Warbler, Yellow-crowned Whitestart, Carriker’s (Buff-breasted) Mountain-tanager and Santa Marta (Black-cheeked) Mountain-tanager.

    Photograph of Dusky Starfrontlet

    Dusky Starfrontlet at Colibri del Sol Nature Reserve by Dubi Shapiro, one of the most localized and rarest Colombian endemics.

    Colombia and Venezuela 81
    (16 hummingbirds, three puffbirds and three antpittas)
    Rufous-vented Chachalaca, Yellow-knobbed Curassow, Helmeted Curassow, Black-fronted Wood-quail, Northern Screamer, Bare-eyed Pigeon, Pygmy Swift, Orange-throated Sunangel, Longuemare’s (Amethyst-throated) Sunangel, Perija Metaltail, Coppery-bellied Puffleg, Green (Collared) Inca, Perija (Golden-bellied) Starfrontlet, Blue-throated Starfrontlet, Red-billed Emerald, Coppery Emerald, Narrow-tailed Emerald, Short-tailed Emerald, Buffy Hummingbird, Steely-vented Hummingbird, Green-bellied Hummingbird, Shining-green Hummingbird, Violet-chested Hummingbird, Dwarf Cuckoo, White-tipped Quetzal, Pale-headed Jacamar, Russet-throated Puffbird, Two-banded (Russet-throated) Puffbird, Moustached Puffbird, Citron-throated (Channel-billed) Toucan, Yellow-billed (Groove-billed) Toucanet, Scaled Piculet, Chestnut Piculet, Rusty-faced Parrot, Perija (Painted) Parakeet, Scarlet-fronted Parakeet, Recurve-billed Bushbird, Streak-fronted (Black-crested) Antshrike, Bar-crested Antshrike, Black-backed Antshrike, Klages’s Antbird, Magdalena Antbird, Blue-lored Antbird, Perija (Rufous) Antpitta, Hooded Antpitta, Rusty-breasted Antpitta, Perija Tapaculo, Pale-bellied Tapaculo, Scalloped (Schwartz’s) Antthrush, Eastern Barred Woodcreeper, Caribbean (Pale-legged) Hornero, Plain (Rufous-fronted) Thornbird, Perija Thistletail, Streak-capped Spinetail, Crested Spinetail, White-whiskered Spinetail, Orinoco Spinetail, White-bibbed Manakin, Golden-breasted Fruiteater, Mountain (Spectacled) Tyrannulet, Slender-billed Tyrannulet, White-bearded Flycatcher, Scrub Greenlet, Black-collared Jay, Stripe-backed Wren, Black-billed Thrush, Tocuyo Sparrow, Perija Brush-finch, Yellow-mandibled (Pectoral) Sparrow, Golden-winged Sparrow, Ochre-breasted Brush-finch, Black-fronted (Yellow-breasted) Brush-finch, Grey-throated Warbler, Yellow-crowned (Golden-crowned) Warbler, Yellow-fronted Whitestart, Vermilion Cardinal, Orinocan Saltator, Fulvous-headed Tanager, Rufous-browed Conebill, Glaucous Tanager and Black-headed (Hooded) Tanager.

    Colombia, Venezuela, and Trinidad & Tobago 6
    Rufous-shafted Woodstar, Stripe-breasted Spinetail, Venezuelan Flycatcher, Trinidad Euphonia, Venezuelan Troupial and Masked Cardinal.

    Colombia, Venezuela and Guyana 2
    Northern Festive Parrot and Red Siskin.

    Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas 1
    Lilac-tailed Parrotlet.

    Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil 7
    Orinoco Piculet, Yapacana Antbird, Grey-bellied Antbird, Yellow-throated Antwren, Brown-headed Greenlet, Azure-naped Jay and Rio Negro Gnatcatcher.

    Colombia and Brazil 1
    Chestnut-crested Antbird.

    Colombia, Brazil and Peru 2
    Plain-breasted Piculet and Varzea Thrush.

    Colombia and Ecuador 100
    (20 hummingbirds, five antpittas, an umbrellabird and 13 tanagers)
    Berlepsch’s Tinamou, Baudo Guan, Rufous-fronted Wood-quail, Dark-backed Wood-quail, Dusky Pigeon, Purple Quail-dove, Choco Poorwill, White-whiskered Hermit, Western Wedge-billed Hummingbird, Gorgeted Sunangel, Tourmaline Sunangel, Violet-tailed Sylph, Ecuadorian Hillstar, Viridian Metaltail, Hoary Puffleg, Black-thighed Puffleg, Sapphire-vented Puffleg, Golden-breasted Puffleg, Brown Inca, Velvet-purple Coronet, Rufous-gaped Hillstar, Purple-bibbed Whitetip, Pink-throated Brilliant, Empress Brilliant, Western Emerald, Purple-chested Hummingbird, Gray’s Hummingbird (Blue-headed Sapphire), Banded Ground-cuckoo, Brown Wood-rail, Cloudforest Pygmy-owl, Colombian (Rufescent) Screech-owl, Choco Trogon, Choco Toucan, Plate-billed Mountain-toucan, Orange-fronted Barbet, Five-coloured Barbet, Toucan Barbet, Lita Woodpecker, Choco Woodpecker, Plumbeous Forest-falcon, Carunculated Caracara, Rose-faced Parrot, Choco (Maroon-tailed) Parakeet, Cocha Antshrike, Stub-tailed Antbird, Esmeraldas Antbird, Rufous-crowned Pittasoma, Giant Antpitta, Moustached Antpitta, Bicoloured Antpitta, Yellow-breasted Antpitta, Crescent-faced Antpitta, Narino Tapaculo, Spillmann’s Tapaculo, Pacific Tuftedcheek, Stout-billed Cinclodes, Uniform Treehunter, Fulvous-dotted Treerunner, Club-winged Manakin, Yellow-headed Manakin, Orange-breasted Fruiteater, Chestnut-bellied Cotinga (likely to occur in north Peru), Long-wattled Umbrellabird, Pacific Flatbill, Northern Ornate Flycatcher, Choco Tyrannulet, Coopmans’s Elaenia, Plain-capped Ground-tyrant, Black-billed Peppershrike, Pale-legged (Slaty-capped) Shrike-vireo, Choco Vireo, Beautiful Jay, Quindio (Black-collared) Jay, Black Solitaire, Chestnut-throated (Rufous-brown) Solitaire, Tanager Finch, Dusky Bush-tanager, Choco (Tricoloured) Brush-finch, White-rimmed Brush-finch, Olive-crowned Yellowthroat, Choco (Golden-bellied) Warbler, Ochre-breasted Tanager, Scarlet-and-white Tanager, Scarlet-breasted Dacnis, Yellow-tufted (Black-faced) Dacnis, Black-winged Saltator, Western Black-eared Hemispingus, Stolzmann’s Tanager (Black-backed Bush Tanager), Ochraceous (Cinereous) Conebill, Indigo Flowerpiercer, Purplish-mantled Tanager, Black-chinned Mountain-tanager, Glistening-green Tanager, Yellow-green Tanager (Chlorospingus), Moss-backed Tanager, Golden-chested Tanager, Rufous-throated Tanager, Scrub Tanager, Yellow-faced (Flame-faced) Tanager and Blue-whiskered Tanager.

    Photograph of Toucan Barbet

    Toucan Barbet at Paz de la Aves Reserve near Mindo in Ecuador by Simon Colenutt. This colourful bird of Colombia and Ecuador is one of two members of the Semnornithidae family, along with Prong-billed Barbet which occurs in Costa Rica and Panama.

    Colombia, Ecuador and Peru 40
    Pallid Dove, Ecuadorian Piedtail, Rainbow-bearded Thornbill, Buff-winged Starfrontlet, Chestnut-breasted Coronet, Green-backed (White-tailed) Hillstar, Rufous-vented Whitetip, Cinnamon Screech-owl, Coppery-chested Jacamar, Brown Nunlet, White-faced Nunbird, Guayaquil Woodpecker, Scarlet-backed Woodpecker, Pacific Parrotlet, Yasuni Stipplethroat (Antwren), Chestnut-naped Antpitta, White-bellied Antpitta, Western Tawny Antpitta, Long-tailed Tapaculo, Paramo Tapaculo, Pacific Hornero, Spectacled Prickletail, Fiery-throated Fruiteater, Grey-tailed Piha, Dusky Piha, Foothill Schiffornis, Ecuadorian Tyrannulet, Orange-eyed Flatbill (Flycatcher), Ochraceous Attila, Snowy-throated Kingbird, Mouse-grey (Bran-coloured) Flycatcher, Turquoise Jay, Plain-tailed Wren, Orange-crowned Euphonia, Ecuadorian Cacique, Scrub Blackbird, Ecuadorian (Blue) Seedeater, Masked Saltator, Masked Mountain-tanager and Golden-naped Tanager.

    Northwest 1
    Black-breasted Puffleg.

    (Turquoise-throated Puffleg is known only from a few specimens taken in the nineteenth century)

    West 2
    Esmeraldas Woodstar and Lilacine (Red-lored) Amazon.

    South/Southwest 5
    Blue-throated Hillstar, Violet-throated Metaltail, El Oro Parakeet, Ecuadorian Tapaculo and Pale-headed Brush-finch.

    (A penguin, four mockingbirds and 17 finches)
    Galapagos Dove, Galapagos Rail, Galapagos Penguin, Lava (Green) Heron, Flightless Cormorant, Lava Gull, Galapagos Hawk, Galapagos Flycatcher, Darwin’s (Galapagos Vermilion) Flycatcher, Galapagos Martin, Floreana Mockingbird, Galapagos Mockingbird, Espanola Mockingbird, San Cristobal Mockingbird, Grey Warbler-finch, Green Warbler-finch, Vegetarian Finch, Sharp-beaked Ground-finch, Large Tree-finch, Medium Tree-finch (Floreana), Small Tree-finch, Mangrove Finch (Isabela), Woodpecker Finch, Vampire Ground-finch (Darwin and Wolf), Small Ground-finch, Medium Ground-finch, Genovesa Ground-finch, Large Ground-finch, Espanola Cactus-finch, Common Cactus-finch and Genovesa Cactus-finch.

    (Waved Albatross nests (April to December) on Espanola Island in the Galapagos and Isla de la Plata (a few pairs only) off Ecuador, and ranges at sea to the Humboldt Current off Ecuador and Peru, sometimes Chile. Swallow-tailed Gull nests all year round on Galapagos and Mapelo Island (in small numbers) off Colombia, and ranges at sea from Colombia to Peru, rarely to central Chile)

    Ecuador and Peru 109
    (13 hummingbirds, three antpittas and 17 tyrant flycatchers)
    Pale-browed Tinamou, Peruvian Pigeon, Ochre-bellied Dove, Ecuadorian Ground-dove, Scrub Nightjar, Porculla (Grey-chinned) Hermit, Ecuadorian (Long-billed) Hermit, Little Sunangel, Purple-throated Sunangel, Royal Sunangel, Green-headed Hillstar, Neblina Metaltail, Rainbow Starfrontlet, Peruvian (Booted) Racket-tail, Tumbes Hummingbird, Amazilia Hummingbird, Short-tailed Woodstar, Purple-collared Woodstar, Imperial Snipe, Peruvian Screech-owl, Grey-backed Hawk, Ecuadorian Trogon, Black-billed (Emerald) Toucanet, Pale-billed (Collared) Aracari, Ecuadorian Piculet, Northern Andean Flicker, Dusky-winged (Lineated) Woodpecker, Grey-cheeked Parakeet, Red-faced Parrot, Wavy-breasted (Rose-fronted) Parakeet, White-necked Parakeet, Cordilleran (Scarlet-fronted) Parakeet, Red-masked Parakeet, Ancient Antwren, Chapman’s Antshrike, Collared Antshrike, Lunulated Antbird, Grey-headed Antbird, Maranon Crescentchest, Elegant Crescentchest, Watkins’s Antpitta, Jocotoco Antpitta, Peruvian Antpitta, Chusquea Tapaculo, Rufous-necked Foliage-gleaner, Henna-hooded Foliage-gleaner, Mouse-coloured Thistletail, Equatorial Greytail, Line-cheeked Spinetail, Maranon Spinetail, Blackish-headed Spinetail, Necklaced Spinetail, Jet Manakin, Scaly-breasted (Scarlet-breasted) Fruiteater, Pacific Royal Flycatcher, Slaty Becard, Cinnamon-breasted Tody-tyrant, Orange-banded Flycatcher, Loja Tyrannulet, Tawny-fronted (Tawny-crowned) Pygmy-tyrant, Pacific Elaenia, Tumbes (Mouse-coloured) Tyrannulet, Grey-and-white Tyrannulet, Rufous-winged Tyrannulet, Black-crested Tit-tyrant, Baird’s Flycatcher, Sooty-crowned Flycatcher, Olive-chested Flycatcher, Jelski’s Chat-tyrant, Tumbes Tyrant, Andean (Jelski’s) Black-tyrant, Grey-breasted Flycatcher, Western Tropical Pewee, Olivaceous Greenlet, White-tailed Jay, Chestnut-collared Swallow, Tumbes Swallow, Fasciated Wren, Speckle-breasted Wren, Maranon Wren, Superciliated Wren, Bar-winged Wood-wren, Long-tailed Mockingbird, Ecuadorian Thrush, Plumbeous-backed Thrush, Maranon Thrush, Saffron Siskin, Tumbes Sparrow, Black-capped Sparrow, Maranon (Black-capped) Sparrow, White-winged Brush-finch, Cream-crowned (White-winged) Brush-finch, White-headed Brush-finch, Bay-crowned Brush-finch, White-edged Oriole, Pale-eyed Blackbird, Black-lored (Masked) Yellowthroat, Grey-and-gold Warbler, Three-banded Warbler, Black-cowled Saltator, Crimson-breasted Finch, Parrot-billed Seedeater, Drab Seedeater, Collared Warbling-finch, Piura (Black-eared) Hemispingus, Buff-bellied Tanager, Sulphur-throated Finch, Streaked (Tit-like) Dacnis and Orange-throated Tanager.

    Photograph of Black-crested Tit-tyrant

    Black-crested Tit-tyrant at Utuana in far south Ecuador near the border with Peru by Dubi Shapiro. The range of this species falls mainly within Peru and only just reaches the far south of Ecuador.

    Ecuador, Peru and Brazil 1
    Orange-crested Manakin.

    Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia 6
    Rufous-breasted (Leymebamba) Antpitta, White-bellied Pygmy-tyrant, Red-billed Tyrannulet, Black-and-white Tanager, Silver-backed Tanager and Straw-backed Tanager.

    Ecuador, Peru and Chile 6
    Peruvian Thick-knee, Grey Gull, Belcher’s Gull, Peruvian Tern, Peruvian Pygmy-owl and Short-tailed Field-tyrant.

    PERU 134
    (21 hummingbirds, seven antpittas, three cotingas and five inca-finches)
    No particular region 28
    Junin Grebe, Koepcke’s Hermit (isolated mountains of East Andes), Peruvian Piedtail (east slope), Coppery-naped Puffleg (east slope), White-tufted Sunbeam, Purple-backed Sunbeam (east slope along upper Rio Maranon), Chestnut Antpitta, Large-footed Tapaculo, Rufous-vented Tapaculo, Neblina Tapaculo, Tschudi’s Tapaculo, Coastal Miner, Thick-billed Miner, Striated Earthcreeper, Surf Cinclodes, Rusty-crowned Tit-spinetail, Junin Canastero, Cactus Canastero, Cerulean-capped Manakin, Inca Flycatcher, Unstreaked Tit-tyrant, Peruvian Wren, Rusty-bellied Brush-finch, Peruvian Citrine Warbler, Great Inca-finch (west slope), Yellow-scarfed Tanager (east slope), Streak-crowned (Buff-breasted) Mountain-tanager (east slope) and White-browed (Black-capped) Hemispingus.

    North 29
    White-winged Guan, Grey-bellied Comet, Coppery Metaltail, Marvellous Spatuletail, Spot-throated Hummingbird (recorded in extreme south Ecuador), Long-whiskered Owlet, Yellow-browed Toucanet, Scarlet-banded Barbet, Blue-cowled (Versicoloured) Barbet, Speckle-chested Piculet (Rio Huallaga Basin), Garlepp’s Parakeet, Ash-throated Antwren (Mayo Valley), Maranon (Collared) Antshrike, White-masked Antbird (possibly also in Ecuador), Cordillera Azul Antbird, Allpahuayo Antbird (Rio Morona & Rio Nanay drainages), Pale-billed Antpitta (east slope), Rusty-tinged Antpitta, Southern Tawny Antpitta, Ochre-fronted Antpitta (Abra Patricia & Cordillera del Colan), Russet-mantled Softtail, Chinchipe (Necklaced) Spinetail, Painted Manakin, Lulu’s Tody-flycatcher, Mishana Tyrannulet, Maranon Gnatcatcher, Grey-winged Inca-finch, Little Inca-finch (lower Maranon Valley) and Huallaga Tanager.

    Photograph of Marvellous Spatuletail

    The amazing Marvellous Spatuletail at Pomacochas in Northern Peru by Christian Nunes. This wonder of the bird world has a tiny range on the eastern slopes of the Rio Utcubamba Valley where even there it is uncommon.

    North – upper Maranon Valley 8
    Yellow-faced Parrotlet, Chestnut-backed Thornbird, Great Spinetail, White-rumped (White-winged) Black-tyrant, Rufous-eared Brush-finch, Rufous-backed Inca-finch, Buff-bridled Inca-finch and Plain-tailed Warbling-finch.

    Northwest 7
    Unicoloured Tapaculo (east slope), Ancash Tapaculo, Baron’s (Line-cheeked) Spinetail, Peruvian Plantcutter, Rufous Flycatcher, Piura Chat-tyrant and Cinereous Finch.

    Northeast 1
    Iquitos Gnatcatcher.

    Central 24
    Fire-throated Metaltail (east slope), Vilcabamba (Collared) Inca, Apurimac (Violet-throated) Starfrontlet, Rufous-webbed Brilliant (recorded in Bolivia), Black-breasted Brilliant, Green-and-white Hummingbird (east slope), Junin (Black) Rail, Koepcke’s Screech-owl, Blue-chinned Barbet (east slope), Creamy-bellied Antwren, Bay Antpitta, Junin Tapaculo (east slope), White-bellied Cinclodes, Eye-ringed Thistletail, Vilcabamba Thistletail, Ayacucho Thistletail (west of Rio Apurimac), Vilcabamba (Marcapata) Spinetail, Masked Fruiteater (east slope), Peruvian Tyrannulet, Peruvian (Rufous-brown) Solitaire (east slope), Tricoloured Brush-finch, Rufous-breasted Warbling-finch (west slope), Brown-flanked Tanager (east slope) and Sira Tanager.

    Central/North 5
    Bay-vented Cotinga (east slope), Grey-browed (Plain-tailed) Wren, Rufous-browed Hemispingus (east slope), Pardusco (east slope) and Golden-backed Mountain-tanager (east slope).

    Central/East 2
    Sira Curassow and Sira Barbet (east slope of Cerros del Sira, Andes).

    Central/West 1
    Huancavelica Canastero.

    Central-South 9
    Creamy-crested Spinetail, Apurimac Spinetail, Inca Wren, Apurimac Brush-finch, Black-spectacled Brush-finch, Taczanowski’s (Slaty) Brush-finch, Cuzco Brush-finch, Vilcabamba Brush-finch and Tit-like Dacnis.

    East 1
    Selva Cacique.

    West 8
    Bronze-tailed Comet, Black-breasted Hillstar, Western Mountaineer, Black Metaltail (probably also occurs in Chile), Black-necked Woodpecker, Dark-winged Miner, Russet-bellied Spinetail (Cordillera Negra) and White-cheeked Cotinga.

    South 4
    Vilcabamba Tapaculo, White-browed Tit-spinetail (Apurimac and Cuzco Highlands), White-tailed Canastero and Rusty-fronted Canastero.

    Southeast 7
    Eastern Mountaineer, Cuzco (Violet-throated) Starfrontlet, Red-and-white Antpitta, Marcapata Spinetail, Black-backed Tody-flycatcher, Parodi’s Hemispingus and Chestnut-breasted Mountain-finch.

    Peru and Brazil 6
    Fine-barred Piculet, Acre Antshrike, Manu Antbird, Black-tailed Antbird, Elusive Antpitta and Acre Tody-tyrant.

    Peru, Brazil and Bolivia 39
    Brazilian Tinamou, Purus Jacamar, White-throated Jacamar, Blue-necked (-cheeked) Jacamar, Bluish-fronted Jacamar, Semi-collared Puffbird, Rufous-necked Puffbird, Fulvous-chinned Nunlet, Rufous-capped Nunlet, Black-throated (Emerald) Toucanet, Green-billed (Golden-collared) Toucanet, Brown-mandibled Aracari, Flame-throated (Lemon-throated) Barbet, Amazonian Parrotlet, Black-legged Parrot, Rose-fronted Parakeet, Black-capped Parakeet, Blue-headed Macaw, Southern Red-shouldered Macaw, Sclater’s Antwren, Ihering’s Antwren, Saturnine Antshrike, Bluish-slate Antshrike, Bamboo Antshrike, White-lined Antbird, Goeldi’s Antbird, Rufous-fronted Antthrush, Ocellated Woodcreeper, Inambri Woodcreeper, Flame-crested Manakin, Red-headed Manakin, Round-tailed Manakin, Black-faced Cotinga, Rufous Twistwing, Long-crested Pygmy-tyrant, Flammulated Bamboo-tyrant, White-cheeked Tody-flycatcher, Yellow-crested Tanager and Pearly-breasted Conebill.

    Peru and Bolivia 84
    (Seven hummingbirds, three cotingas and ten tanagers)
    Taczanowski’s Tinamou, Stripe-faced Wood-quail, Titicaca Grebe, White-browed Hermit, Olivaceous Thornbill, Scaled Metaltail, Buff-thighed Puffleg, Gould’s Inca, Huanaco (Violet-throated) Starfrontlet, Rufous-booted (Booted) Racket-tail, Cloudforest Screech-owl, Blue-banded Toucanet, Hooded Mountain-toucan, Blue-moustached (Versicoloured) Barbet, Black-crowned (Crimson-mantled) Woodpecker, Andean Parakeet (also recorded in Argentina), Black-winged Parrot, Plumero (Speckle-faced) Parrot, Yellow-rumped Antwren, Ashy Antwren, Upland Antshrike, Brownish-headed Antbird, Rufescent (Russet) Antshrike, Slaty Antshrike, Stripe-headed Antpitta, Rufous-faced Antpitta, Trilling Tapaculo, Bolivian Tapaculo, Puna Tapaculo, Diademed Tapaculo, Royal Cinclodes, Bolivian Recurvebill, Rufous-backed Treehunter, Line-fronted Canastero, Streak-throated Canastero, Puna Thistletail, Light-crowned Spinetail, Cabanis’s Spinetail, Yungas Manakin, Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater, Band-tailed Fruiteater, Scimitar-winged Piha, Hazel-fronted Pygmy-tyrant, Cinnamon-faced Tyrannulet, White-bellied (Slaty-capped) Flycatcher, Yungas Tody-tyrant, Ochraceous-breasted Flycatcher, Bolivian Tyrannulet, Yungas Tyrannulet, Ash-breasted Tit-tyrant, Unadorned Flycatcher, Kalinowski’s (Crowned) Chat-tyrant, Golden-browed Chat-tyrant, Chestnut-belted (Slaty-backed) Chat-tyrant, Taczanowski’s Ground-tyrant, Chestnut-naped (Rufous-naped) Ground-tyrant, Rufous-bellied Bush-tyrant, Olive Flycatcher, White-collared Jay, Fulvous Wren, Southern Chestnut-breasted Wren, White-eared Solitaire, Black-faced Brush-finch, Dusky-green Oropendola, Southern Mountain Cacique, Bolivian Citrine Warbler, Golden-bellied Warbler, Bolivian (Three-striped) Warbler, Slaty Tanager, Golden-bellied (Grey-hooded) Tanager, Drab Hemispingus, Orange-browed Hemispingus, Three-striped Hemispingus, White-browed Conebill, Peruvian Sierra-finch, Moustached Flowerpiercer, Golden-collared Tanager, Chestnut-bellied Mountain-tanager, Bolivian (Blue-winged) Mountain-tanager, Fire-bellied (Scarlet-bellied) Mountain-tanager, Blue-throated (Orange-eared) Tanager, Rusty-naped (Golden) Tanager, Green-capped Tanager and Spot-bellied (Blue-and-black) Tanager.

    Peru, Bolivia and Chile 6
    Arequipa (Creamy-breasted) Canastero, Ticking Doradito, White-fronted Ground-tyrant, Cinereous Conebill, White-winged Diuca-finch and White-throated Sierra-finch.

    Peru and Chile 18
    Humboldt Penguin, Lesser Band-winged (Tschudi’s) Nightjar, Peruvian Sheartail (also recorded in Ecuador), Oasis Hummingbird, Peruvian Diving-petrel, Inca Tern, Greyish Miner, White-throated Earthcreeper, Streaked Tit-spinetail, Plain-mantled Tit-spinetail, Canyon Canastero, Pied-crested Tit-tyrant, Rufescent (Bran-coloured) Flycatcher, Peruvian Martin, Peruvian (Yellowish) Pipit, Slender-billed Finch, Tamarugo Conebill and Raimondi’s Yellow-finch.

    BOLIVIA 18
    Horned Curassow (east slope), Coppery Thorntail (lowlands of northeast), Black-hooded Sunbeam (Cordillera Real in west), Bolivian (Violet-throated) Starfrontlet (east slope), Cliff (Monk) Parakeet, Blue-throated Macaw (Llanos de Mojos), Red-fronted Macaw, Masked Antpitta (small range), Berlepsch’s Canastero, Black-throated Thistletail, Bolivian Spinetail, Apolo (Swallow-tailed) Cotinga, Unicoloured Thrush, Bolivian Brush-finch, Bolivian Blackbird, Cochabamba Mountain-finch, Ringed Warbling-finch and Grey-bellied Flowerpiercer.

    Photograph of Blue-throated Macaws

    Blue-throated Macaws in Barba Azul Nature Reserve by Paul Jones. These spectacular large macaws are endemic to a relatively small region of northern Bolivia known as Llanos de Mojos.

    (Six hummingbirds, five antpittas and a fruiteater)
    North/Northwest 36
    Venezuelan Wood-quail, Merida Sunangel, White-bearded Helmetcrest, Golden (Golden-bellied) Starfrontlet, Green-tailed Emerald, Rusty-flanked Crake, Plain-flanked Rail (small range), Groove-billed Toucanet, Venezuelan Parakeet, Red-eared Parakeet, Rose-headed Parakeet, Great Antpitta (probably also occurs in Colombia), Grey-naped Antpitta, Scallop-breasted Antpitta, Merida Tapaculo, Caracas Tapaculo, Guttulate Foliage-gleaner, Ochre-browed Thistletail, Black-throated Spinetail, Handsome Fruiteater, Rufous-lored Tyrannulet, Venezuelan Bristle-tyrant, Maracaibo Tody-flycatcher, Venezuelan Tyrannulet, Blackish (Slaty-backed) Chat-tyrant, Rufous-browed (Brown-backed) Chat-tyrant, Merida Wren, Caracas Brush-finch, Merida (Moustached) Brush-finch, Green-billed (Russet-backed) Oropendola, White-fronted Whitestart, Slaty-backed Hemispingus, Grey-capped Hemispingus, Merida Flowerpiercer, Rufous-cheeked Tanager and Chestnut-breasted (Golden) Tanager.

    West 1
    Tachira Antpitta (small range).

    Northeast/Paria Peninsula 13
    Venezuelan Sylph (Cordillera de la Costa), Scissor-tailed Hummingbird (Paria), Black-spotted Piculet, White-throated Barbet (Serrania de Turimiquire and Cordillera de Caripe), Paria (White-throated) Barbet, Sucre Antpitta (also Paria Peninsula), White-throated Barbtail, Paria Barbtail, Urich’s Tyrannulet, Paria Brush-finch, Grey-headed Warbler (Cordillera de Caripe), Paria Whitestart and Venezuelan Flowerpiercer.

    South 6
    Tepui Tinamou (small range), Tepui (Band-winged) Nightjar, Orinoco Softtail (small range), White-faced Whitestart (Cerros Guanay, Sipapo and Yavi), Guaiquinima Whitestart (small range) and Duida Grass-finch (small range).

    East - Lower Rio Caroni 1
    Carrizal Seedeater.

    East - Orinoco Delta 1

    Venezuela, and Trinidad & Tobago 1
    Copper-rumped Hummingbird.

    Venezuela and Tobago 1
    White-tailed Sabrewing.

    Venezuela and nearby islands 1
    Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Venezuelan islands of Margarita and La Blanquilla, and the island of Bonaire in the Caribbean. It has been extirpated from the islands of Aruba and possibly also Curacao.)

    Venezuela and Guyana 2
    Fiery-shouldered Parakeet and Red-banded Fruiteater.

    Venezuela, Guyana and Suriname 2
    Blue-cheeked Amazon and Guianan (Rufous-brown) Solitaire.

    Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil 35
    Roraiman Nightjar, Tepui Swift, Tepui Goldenthroat, Peacock Coquette, Velvet-browed Brilliant, Rufous-breasted Sabrewing, Copper-tailed (Green-bellied) Hummingbird, Tepui Parrotlet, Roraiman Antwren, Streak-backed Antshrike, Roraiman Antbird, Tepui Antpitta, White-throated Foliage-gleaner, Roraiman Barbtail, Tepui Spinetail, Olive Manakin, Scarlet-horned Manakin, Orange-bellied Manakin, Rose-collared Piha, Green-cheeked (Green-backed) Becard, Black-fronted Tyrannulet, Chapman’s Bristle-tyrant, Sierra de Lema (McConnell’s) Flycatcher, Ruddy Tody-flycatcher, Tepui Elaenia, Flutist Wren, Tepui Wren, Pantepui (Black-billed) Thrush, Tepui Brush-finch, Golden-tufted Grackle, Roraiman (Two-banded) Warbler, Tepui Whitestart, Olive-backed Tanager, Greater Flowerpiercer and Black-hooded Tanager.

    Venezuela, Guianas and Brazil 36
    Guianan Puffbird, Tepui Toucanet, Guianan Toucanet, Green Aracari, Black-spotted Barbet, Caica Parrot, Painted Parakeet, Northern Red-shouldered Macaw, Brown-bellied Stipplethroat (Antwren), Spot-tailed Antwren, Todd’s Antwren, Black-throated Antshrike, Guianan Antwarbler (Warbling Antbird), Ferruginous-backed Antbird, Red-billed Woodcreeper, Chestnut-rumped Woodcreeper, Lineated (Guianan) Woodcreeper, McConnell’s Spinetail, Tiny Tyrant-manakin, Crimson-hooded Manakin, White-throated Manakin, Guianan Red Cotinga, White Bellbird, Dusky Purpletuft, Glossy-backed Becard, Olivaceous Schiffornis (Mourner), Smoky-fronted Tody-flycatcher, Painted Tody-flycatcher, Guianan Tyrannulet, Olive-crowned Greenlet, Tepui Vireo (not French Guiana), Cayenne Jay, Finsch’s Euphonia, Golden-sided Euphonia, Red-and-black Grosbeak and Blue-backed Tanager.

    Venezuela and Brazil 6
    Buff-breasted Sabrewing, Sapphire-spangled Emerald, Caura Antbird, Black-chested Tyrant, Great Elaenia (likely to occur in Guyana) and Scaled Flowerpiercer.

    Photograph of Guianan Toucanet

    Guianan Toucanet at Iwokrama River Lodge in Guyana by Dubi Shapiro. This beauty occurs in southeast Venezuela, the Guianas and north Brazil.

    Guianas 1
    Blood-coloured Woodpecker.

    Arrowhead Piculet.

    Cayenne Nightjar (known only from the type specimen, a male taken on the Fleuve Mana in the northwest in 1917, although a possible female was caught at the Saül airstrip in 1982).

    Guianas and Brazil 6
    Northern Long-tailed Woodcreeper, Olive-green Tyrannulet, Boat-billed Tody-tyrant, Todd’s Sirystes, White-throated Pewee (not Guyana) and Guianan Gnatcatcher.

    Guyana and Brazil 4
    Sun Parakeet, Rio Branco Antbird, Willis’s Antbird and Hoary-throated Spinetail.

    Guyana, Brazil and Bolivia 1
    Pale-bellied Tyrant-manakin.

    Suriname and Brazil 2
    Sulphur-breasted Parakeet and Pelzeln’s Tody-tyrant.

    Suriname, Brazil and Bolivia 1
    Horned Sungem.

    French Guiana and Brazil 1
    Sooty Barbthroat.

    BRAZIL 266 (+ 2 on Noronha Island)
    (Nine guans, 17 hummingbirds, 49 antbirds, four antpittas, eight cotingas and 16 tanagers)
    No particular region 27
    Chestnut-bellied Guan (central and southwest), Frilled Coquette (south), Stripe-breasted Starthroat (east-central), Caatinga Puffbird (east-central to northeast), Ariel (Channel-billed) Toucan (Amazonia and east), Kaempfer’s Woodpecker (central), Ochre-backed Woodpecker (lower Amazon and northeast), Goias (Pfrimer’s) Parakeet (Serra Geral, central), Silvery-cheeked Antshrike (east-central and northeast), Planalto Slaty Antshrike (southwest to northeast), Brasilia Tapaculo (central), Wing-banded Hornero (central, east and northeast), Grey-headed Spinetail (east-central to northeast), Caatinga Cacholote (east-central to northeast), Grey-backed Tachuri (east-central), Ash-throated Casiornis (central to northeast), Caatinga Black-tyrant (east-central), Velvety Black-tyrant (east-central to northeast), Grey-eyed Greenlet (east to northeast), White-naped Jay (central, east and northeast), Long-billed Wren (east to northeast), Yellow-faced Siskin (east-central to northeast), Campo Troupial (east to northeast), White-striped Warbler (south-central), Scarlet-throated Tanager (east-central to northeast), Cinereous Warbling-finch (south-central) and Cinnamon Tanager (central, east and northeast, and recorded in Argentina and Paraguay).

    Photograph of Frilled Coquette

    The fantastic Frilled Coquette, a Brazilian endemic, by Chris Townend.

    East 62
    Yellow-legged Tinamou, East Brazilian Chachalaca, Hooded Visorbearer, Sombre Hummingbird, Long-tailed Woodnymph, Little Wood-rail, White-necked Hawk, Atlantic Black-breasted (Ringed) Woodpecker, Golden-tailed Parrotlet, Plain Parakeet, Blue-bellied Parrot, Blue-breasted Parrot, White-eared Parakeet, Golden-capped Parakeet, Narrow-billed Antwren, Sincora Antwren (tiny range), Silvery-flanked Antwren, Salvadori’s Antwren, Band-tailed Antwren, Spot-breasted Antvireo (also recorded in extreme northern Argentina), Plumbeous Antvireo, Bahia Antwren, Sooretama Slaty Antshrike, Ochre-rumped Antbird, Scaled Antbird, Scalloped Antbird, White-bibbed Antbird, Squamate Antbird, Slender Antbird, Black-cheeked Gnateater, White-breasted Tapaculo, Bahia Tapaculo (tiny range), Boa Nova Tapaculo (tiny range), Diamantina Tapaculo (inland), Scaled Woodcreeper, Large Pale-browed Treehunter, Pink-legged Graveteiro, Striated Softtail, Bahia Spinetail, Wied’s Tyrant-manakin, Kinglet (Eastern Striped) Manakin, Black-headed Berryeater, Cinnamon-vented Piha, Banded Cotinga, White-winged Cotinga, Bahia Tyrannulet, Minas Gerais Tyrannulet, Oustalet’s Tyrannulet, Hangnest Tody-tyrant, Fork-tailed Tody-tyrant, Grey-hooded Attila, Sao Francisco Sparrow, Forbes’s Blackbird, Pale-throated Pampa-finch, Rufous-headed Tanager, Brazilian Tanager, Dubois’s Seedeater, Tropeiro Seedeater, Black-bellied Seedeater, Gilt-edged Tanager, White-bellied (Turquoise) Tanager and Silver-breasted (Opal-rumped) Tanager.

    (Stresemann’s Bristlefront may be extinct. A survey in 1995 found 15 birds in an area the species was thought to exist in, in Bahia state, but during an extensive search in 2018 just a single female was found and up to October 2019 that remained the case)

    Southeast 74
    (13 antbirds, three cotingas and seven tanagers)
    Dwarf Tinamou, Scaled Chachalaca, Red-billed Curassow, Saw-billed Hermit, Hook-billed Hermit, Dusky-throated Hermit, Minute Hermit, Hyacinth Visorbearer, Festive Coquette, Brazilian Ruby, Green-crowned Plovercrest, Dry-forest (Grey-breasted) Sabrewing, Northern Surucua Trogon, Three-toed Jacamar, Greater Crescent-chested Puffbird, Yellow-eared Woodpecker, Brown-backed Parrotlet, Red-spectacled Amazon, Red-browed Amazon, Red-tailed Amazon, Ochre-marked Parakeet, Black-hooded Antwren, Serra Antwren, Restinga Antwren, Parana Antwren, Marsh Antwren, Rio de Janeiro Antwren, Unicoloured Antwren, Star-throated Antwren, Rufous-backed Antvireo, Rio de Janeiro Antbird, Ferruginous Antbird, Rufous-tailed Antbird, Fringe-backed Fire-eye, Slaty Bristlefront, Mouse-coloured Tapaculo, Rock Tapaculo, Marsh Tapaculo, Cryptic Antthrush, Long-tailed Cinclodes, White-collared Foliage-gleaner, Small Pale-browed Treehunter, Striolated Tit-spinetail, Orange-eyed Thornbird, Cipo Canastero, Itatiaia Spinetail, Pallid Spinetail, Serro do Mar Tyrant-manakin, Pin-tailed Manakin, Hooded Berryeater, Black-and-gold Cotinga, Grey-winged Cotinga, Atlantic Royal Flycatcher, Buff-throated Purpletuft, Elegant Mourner, Restinga Tyrannulet, Serra do Mar Tyrannulet, Eye-ringed Tody-tyrant, Kaempfer’s Tody-tyrant, Yellow-lored Tody-flycatcher, Grey-capped Tyrannulet, Rio de Janeiro Greenlet, Rufous-brown Solitaire, Half-collared Sparrow, Olive-green Tanager, Brown Tanager, Cherry-throated Tanager (rare), Black-legged Dacnis, Bay-chested Warbling-finch, Buff-breasted (Buff-throated) Warbling-finch, Azure-shouldered Tanager, Golden-chevroned Tanager, Black-backed Tanager and Brassy-breasted Tanager.

    (There have been no records of Kinglet Calyptura since 1996)

    Northeast 39
    White-browed Guan, Buff-browed Chachalaca, Alagoas Curassow, Bahian Nighthawk, Pygmy Nightjar, Broad-tipped Hermit, Pernambuco Pygmy-owl (tiny range), White-collared Kite (tiny range), Lesser Crescent-chested Puffbird, Spotted Piculet, Tawny Piculet, Ochraceous Piculet, Pearly Parakeet, Grey-breasted Parakeet, Lear’s Macaw, Cactus Parakeet, Jandaya Parakeet, Alagoas Antwren, Orange-bellied Antwren, Pectoral Antwren, Ceara (Rufous) Gnateater, Hooded Gnateater, White-browed Antpitta, Ceara Leaftosser, Moustached Woodcreeper, Ceara Woodcreeper, Great Xenops, Pernambuco Foliage-gleaner, Scaled Spinetail (lower River Amazon), Red-shouldered Spinetail, Pinto’s Spinetail, Araripe Manakin, Alagoas Tyrannulet, Buff-breasted Tody-tyrant, Bahia (Lesser) Wagtail-tyrant, Pale Baywing, White-throated Seedeater, Red-cowled Cardinal and Seven-coloured Tanager.

    (Belem (Bare-faced) Curassow has not been recorded in the wild since the late 1970s, and Spix’s Macaw is extinct in the wild)

    Photograph of Araripe Manakin

    The striking Araripe Manakin, by Brian Field, has a tiny range in the Chapada do Araripe of northeast Brazil, an upland area just 50 km long and one km wide.

    East Amazonia 17
    White-crested Guan, Chestnut-headed Chachalaca, Ash-bellied Hermit, Black-winged Trumpeter, Eastern Red-necked Aracari, Varzea Piculet, Santarem Parakeet, Golden Parakeet, Bananal Antbird, Xingu Scale-backed Antbird, Snethlage’s Antpitta, Spix’s Woodcreeper, Xingu Scythebill, Layard’s Woodcreeper, White-tailed Cotinga, Para Oropendola and Rose-bellied Chat.

    Amazonia 28
    Tapajos Hermit, Scaled Ground-cuckoo, Olive-winged Trumpeter, Chestnut-headed Nunlet (tiny range), Brown-chested Barbet, Bald Parrot, Diademed Amazon, White-faced Amazon (Kawall’s Parrot), Green-thighed (White-bellied) Amazon, Eastern Ornate Stipplethroat (Antwren), Klage’s Antwren, Glossy Antshrike, Spix’s Antwarbler (Warbling Antbird), Tapajos Scale-backed Antbird, Pale-faced Bare-eye, Bare-eyed Antbird, Harlequin Antbird, Rufous-faced Antbird, Black-breasted (Chestnut-belted) Gnateater, Black-bellied Gnateater, Tapajos Antpitta, Brigida’s (Red-billed) Woodcreeper, Tapajos Scythebill, Para Foliage-gleaner, Golden-crowned Manakin, Buff-cheeked Tody-flycatcher, Para Gnatcatcher and Crimson-fronted Cardinal.

    West Amazonia 5
    Ochre-winged Trumpeter, Yellow-tailed (White-bellied) Amazon, Bonaparte’s Parakeet, Predicted Antwren and Alta Floresta Antpitta.

    Southwest Amazonia 12
    Green-winged Trumpeter, Rondonia Bushbird, Aripuana Antwren, Manicore Antwarbler (Warbling Antbird), White-breasted Antbird, Hoffmann’s Woodcreeper, White-tailed Tityra, Chico’s Tyrannulet, Campina (Azure-naped) Jay, Inambari (Guianan) Gnatcatcher, Grey Wren and Cone-billed Tanager.

    Southwest 1
    Blue-eyed Ground-dove (small range).

    Central 1
    Araguaia (White-lored) Spinetail (small range).

    Noronha Island 2
    Noronha Elaenia and Noronha Vireo.

    Brazil and Bolivia 30
    Red-throated Piping-guan, Long-tailed Ground-dove, Cinnamon-throated Hermit, Buff-bellied Hermit, Dot-eared Coquette, Eastern Striolated Puffbird, Gould’s Toucanet, Lettered Aracari, Western Red-necked Aracari, Black-girdled Barbet, White-wedged Piculet, Cryptic Forest-falcon, Yellow-faced Parrot, Crimson-bellied Parakeet, Madeira (Santarem) Parakeet, Rio Madeira Stipplethroat (Antwren), Large-billed Antwren, Natterer’s Slaty Antshrike, Rondonia Antwarbler (Warbling Antbird), Humaita Antbird, Double-collared Crescentchest, Campo Miner, Uniform Woodcreeper, Dusky-capped (Rondonia) Woodcreeper, Snow-capped Manakin, Snethlage’s Tody-tyrant, Chapada Flycatcher, Tooth-billed Wren, Blue Finch and Black-and-tawny Seedeater.

    Brazil, Bolivia and Argentina 1
    Coalcrest (Coal-crested Finch).

    Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay 13
    Rufous-faced Crake, White-winged Nightjar (small range), Hyacinth Macaw, Black-bellied Antwren, Rufous-winged Antshrike, Bolivian Slaty Antshrike, Mato Grosso Antbird, White-lored Spinetail, Helmeted Manakin, White-rumped Monjita, Curl-crested Jay, Fawn-breasted Wren and White-bellied (Golden-crowned) Warbler.

    Brazil and Paraguay 9
    Lesser Nothura, Least Pygmy-owl, Mantled Hawk, Blaze-winged Parakeet, Blue-winged Macaw, Collared Crescentchest, Russet-mantled Foliage-gleaner, Chestnut-capped Foliage-gleaner and Reiser’s Tyrannulet.

    Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay 1
    Crested Black-tyrant.

    Brazil and Argentina 9
    Brazilian Merganser, Long-trained Nightjar, White-bearded Antshrike, Spotted Bamboowren, Planalto Tapaculo, Rufous-tailed Antthrush, Black-capped Piprites, Brown-breasted Bamboo-tyrant and Thick-billed Saltator.

    Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay 12
    Dot-winged Crake, Olrog’s Gull, Long-tufted Screech-owl, Curve-billed Reedhaunter, Freckle-breasted Thornbird, Hudson’s Canastero, Straight-billed Reedhaunter, Sulphur-bearded Spinetail, Bay-capped Wren-spinetail, Fork-tailed (Puna) Pipit, Brown-and-yellow Marshbird and Yellow Cardinal.

    Brazil and Uruguay 1
    Orange-breasted Thornbird.

    Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina 76
    Solitary Tinamou, Spot-winged Wood-quail, Purple-winged Ground-dove, Sooty Swift, Biscutate Swift, Scale-throated Hermit, Violet-crowned Plovercrest, Slaty-breasted Wood-rail, Black-capped Screech-owl, Tawny-browed Owl, Rusty-barred Owl, Southern Surucua Trogon, Rufous-capped Motmot, Buff-bellied Puffbird, Red-breasted Toucan, Spot-billed Toucanet, Saffron Toucanet, Ochre-collared Piculet, Robust Woodpecker, Blond-crested Woodpecker, Helmeted Woodpecker, Yellow-fronted Woodpecker, Vinaceous-breasted Amazon, Streak-capped Antwren, Southern Rufous-winged Antwren, Spot-backed Antshrike, Tufted Antshrike, Bertoni’s Antbird, Dusky-tailed Antbird, White-shouldered Fire-eye, Speckle-breasted Antpitta, Rufous-breasted Leaftosser, Plain-winged Woodcreeper, Planalto Woodcreeper, White-throated Woodcreeper, Lesser Woodcreeper, Black-billed Scythebill, White-throated Xenops, Black-capped Foliage-gleaner, White-browed Foliage-gleaner, Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner, Canebrake Groundcreeper, White-eyed Foliage-gleaner, Araucaria Tit-spinetail, Olive Spinetail, Rufous-capped Spinetail, Blue (Swallow-tailed) Manakin, Swallow-tailed Cotinga, Bare-throated Bellbird, Greenish Schiffornis, Russet-winged Spadebill, Sao Paulo Tyrannulet, Bay-ringed Tyrannulet, Southern Bristle-tyrant, Grey-hooded Flycatcher, Eared Pygmy-tyrant, Drab-breasted Bamboo-tyrant, Greenish Tyrannulet, Dinelli’s Doradito, Sibilant Sirystes, Shear-tailed Grey Tyrant, Rufous-crowned Greenlet, Creamy-bellied Gnatcatcher, Eastern Slaty Thrush, Green-throated Euphonia, Chestnut-bellied Euphonia, Southern Riverbank Warbler, Blackish-blue Seedeater, Black-throated Grosbeak, Ruby-crowned Tanager, Temminck’s Seedeater, Buffy-fronted Seedeater, Chestnut-headed Tanager, Uniform Finch, Green-headed Tanager and Red-necked Tanager.

    Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Bolivia 11
    Black-fronted Piping-guan, Great Dusky Swift, Chaco (Spot-backed) Puffbird, Cream-backed, Pale-crested and White-fronted Woodpeckers, Nanday Parakeet, Planalto Elaenia, Saffron-billed Sparrow, Ibera Seedeater and Stripe-bellied (Burnished-buff) Tanager.

    Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay 33
    Black Jacobin, Violet-capped Woodnymph, White-throated Hummingbird, Red-and-white Crake, Mottled Piculet, Yellow-browed (White-browed) Woodpecker, White-spotted Woodpecker, Maroon-bellied Parakeet, Large-tailed Antshrike, Rufous Gnateater, Scalloped Woodcreeper, Sharp-billed Treehunter, Grey-bellied Spinetail, Spix’s Spinetail, Brazilian (Small-headed) Elaenia, Olivaceous Elaenia, Warbling Doradito, Blue-billed Black-tyrant, Black-and-white Monjita, Azure Jay, Ochre-breasted Pipit, Yellow-rumped Marshbird, Saffron-cowled Blackbird, White-rimmed Warbler, Glaucous-blue Grosbeak, Lesser Grass-finch, Chestnut Seedeater, Marsh Seedeater, Black-and-rufous Warbling-finch, Grey-breasted Warbling-finch, Black-capped Warbling-finch, Diademed Tanager and Chestnut-backed Tanager.

    White-headed Steamerduck, Hooded Grebe (also recorded in Chile), Moreno’s (Bare-eyed) Ground-dove, Sandy Gallito, White-browed Tapaculo, Cordoba Cinclodes, Olrog’s Cinclodes, Patagonian Canastero, Steinbach’s Canastero, White-throated Cacholote, Salinas Monjita, Rusty-backed Monjita (also recorded in Brazil and Chile), Yellow-striped Brush-finch, Tucuman Mountain-finch (also a few records from Bolivia), Carbon(ated) Sierra-finch, Cinnamon Warbling-finch and Monte Yellow-finch.

    Argentina and Uruguay 1
    Pampas Meadowlark.

    Argentina and Paraguay 4
    Quebracho Crested Tinamou, Tucuman (Ferruginous) Pygmy-owl, Strange-tailed Tyrant and Pampas Pipit.

    Argentina and Bolivia 29
    Huayco Tinamou, Red-faced Guan, Yungas (Large-tailed) Dove, Rothschild’s Swift, Red-tailed Comet, Wedge-tailed Hillstar, Blue-capped Puffleg, Slender-tailed Woodstar, Yungas Screech-owl, Dot-fronted Woodpecker, Tucuman Amazon, Zimmer’s Tapaculo, Bolivian Earthcreeper, Brown-capped Tit-spinetail, Spot-breasted Thornbird, Creamy-breasted Canastero, Maquis Canastero, Rufous-throated Dipper, Brown-backed Mockingbird, Stripe-crowned (Saffron-billed) Sparrow, Fulvous-headed Brush-finch, Brown-capped Whitestart, Bolivian Warbling-finch, Black-and-chestnut Warbling-finch, Rufous-sided Warbling-finch, Rusty-browed Warbling-finch, Citron-headed Yellow-finch, Rufous-bellied Mountain-tanager and Grey-crested Finch.

    Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay 8
    Chaco Owl, Black-bodied Woodpecker, Black-legged Seriema, Olive-crowned Crescentchest, Crested Gallito, Stripe-capped Sparrow, Black-breasted (Ringed) Warbling-finch and Black-crested Finch.

    Argentina, Bolivia and Peru 13
    Ocellated Piculet, White-throated Antpitta, Tawny Tit-spinetail, Scribble-tailed Canastero, Buff-banded Tyrannulet, Golden-crowned Flycatcher, Rufous-webbed Bush-tyrant, Andean Swallow, White-browed Brush-finch, Pale-legged Warbler, Two-banded Warbler, Rust-and-yellow Tanager and Short-tailed Finch.

    Argentina, Bolivia, Peru and Chile 12
    Andean and Puna (James's) Flamingos, Giant Coot, Andean Avocet, Diademed Sandpiper Plover, Puna Plover, Andean Hillstar, Buff-breasted Earthcreeper, Rufous-naped Ground-tyrant, Black Siskin, Puna Yellow-finch and Black-hooded Sierra-finch.

    Argentina, Bolivia and Chile 6
    Elegant Crested Tinamou, White-sided Hillstar, Horned Coot, Rock Earthcreeper, Sombre (Chiguanco) Thrush and Red-backed Sierra-finch.

    Argentina and Chile 49
    Lesser Rhea, Patagonian Tinamou, Ashy-headed Goose, Magellanic (Flightless) Steamerduck, Spectacled Duck, Chilean Pigeon, Green-backed Firecrown, Austral Rail, Magellanic Plover, White-bellied Seedsnipe, Fuegian Snipe, Austral Pygmy-owl, Rufous-legged Owl, Chilean (Bicoloured) Hawk, Rufous-tailed Hawk, Magellanic Woodpecker, Chilean Flicker, White-throated Caracara, Austral Parakeet, Burrowing Parrot, Chestnut-throated Huet-huet, Black-throated Huet-huet, Chucao Tapaculo, Ochre-flanked Tapaculo, Magellanic Tapaculo, Short-billed Miner, Creamy-rumped Miner, White-throated Treerunner, Band-tailed Earthcreeper, Forest (Scale-throated) Earthcreeper, Black (Blackish) Cinclodes (Tierra del Fuego), Grey-flanked Cinclodes, Dark-bellied Cinclodes, Thorn-tailed Rayadito, Des Murs’s Wiretail, Pallid (Plain-mantled) Tit-spinetail, Austral Canastero, Rufous-tailed Plantcutter, Patagonian Tyrant, Fire-eyed Diucon, Great Shrike-tyrant, Chilean Mockingbird, Patagonian Mockingbird, Austral Blackbird, Patagonian Yellow-finch, Greater Yellow-finch, Grey-hooded Sierra-finch, Patagonian Sierra-finch and Yellow-bridled Finch.

    Photograph of Magellanic Plover

    The unique Magellanic Plover at Laguna Verde, Tierra del Fuego, Chile by Paul Jones. This patagonian endemic is in a family all of its own.

    Argentina, Chile and Falkland Islands/Islas Malvinas 17
    Kelp Goose, Upland Goose, Ruddy-headed Goose, Flying Steamerduck, Magellanic Penguin, Magellanic Diving-petrel, Rock Shag (Magellanic Cormorant), Imperial Shag, Magellanic Oystercatcher, Two-banded Plover (range also reaches Brazil), Rufous-chested Plover (range also reaches Brazil), Dolphin Gull, Striated Caracara, Austral Thrush, Black-chinned Siskin, Long-tailed Meadowlark and White-bridled Finch.

    Argentina, Falkland Islands/Islas Malvinas, South Georgia and Antarctica 1
    Snowy Sheathbill.

    Falkland Steamerduck, Blackish Cinclodes and Cobb’s Wren.

    South Georgia Pipit.

    South Georgia and Antarctica 1
    South Georgia (Imperial) Shag.

    Emperor Penguin and Antarctic (Imperial) Shag.

    CHILE 13
    Mainland 10
    Chilean Tinamou, Chilean Woodstar (also recorded in Peru), Pincoya Storm-petrel (also recorded in Argentina), Slender-billed Parakeet, Moustached Turca, White-throated Tapaculo, Dusky Tapaculo, Crag Earthcreeper (Chilia), Seaside Cinclodes and Dusky-tailed Canastero.

    Juan Fernandez Islands 3
    Juan Fernandez Firecrown (Robinson Crusoe Island), Masafuera Rayadito (Alejandro Selkirk (Masafuera) Island) and Juan Fernandez Tit-tyrant (Robinson Crusoe Island).

    (Juan Fernandez Petrel nests from December to May on Alejandro Selkirk and ranges at sea from central Chile to the tropical central and east Pacific. Masatierra (De Filippi’s) Petrel nests in mainly July to December in the Juan Fernandez Islands, and the Desventurada Islands to the north, and ranges at sea in the Humboldt Current area west of central Chile to north Peru)


    AZORES (Portugal) 1
    Azores Bullfinch (east Sao Miguel Island).

    (Monteiro's (Band-rumped) Storm-petrel is an endemic breeding species which breeds mainly from late May-early June to September. It's 'at-sea' distribution is unknown but it may range west across the subtropical Atlantic.

    (Grant's) Band-rumped Storm-petrel breeds mainly November to March from Portugal to the Azores and south to the Canary Islands, and probably ranges at sea across the north Atlantic)

    Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands 1
    Island Canary.

    MADEIRA (Portugal) 2
    Madeira (Trocaz) Laurel-pigeon and Madeira Firecrest.

    (Two seabirds are breeding endemics; Desertas (Fea's) Petrel breeds on Desertas Island, Madeira, mostly August to December and ranges at sea across the Atlantic), and the very rare Zino's Petrel breeds on Madeira mostly from mid-May to September, and ranges at sea to the North and South Atlantic)

    Madeira, Selvagen Islands and Canary Islands 1
    Berthelot’s Pipit.

    Madeira, Canary Islands and Morocco 1
    Plain Swift.

    ((Madeiran) Band-rumped Storm-petrel breeds mainly June to October from Madeira south to the Canary Islands and ranges at sea across the north Atlantic)

    CANARY ISLANDS (Spain) 6
    Dark-tailed (Bolle’s) Laurel-pigeon, White-tailed Laurel-pigeon, Canary Islands Chiffchaff, Fuerteventura Stonechat, Tenerife Blue Chaffinch and Gran Canaria Blue Chaffinch.

    Alexander’s Swift, Cape Verde Buzzard, Raso Lark, Cape Verde Swamp-warbler and Cape Verde Sparrow.

    (Four seabirds are breeding endemics; Cape Verde Storm-petrel (year-round), Cape Verde (Fea's) Petrel (breeds mostly January to May), Cape Verde Shearwater (breeds mostly June to November and ranges at sea to northern Argentina) and Boyd’s Shearwater (breeds mostly January to May and ranges at sea south toward South America).

    Ascension Frigatebird.

    Inaccessible Rail, Gough Moorhen, Tristan Thrush, Inaccessible Finch, Nightingale Finch, Wilkins’s Finch and Gough Finch.

    St Helena Plover.

    Morocco and Algeria 1
    African Crimson-winged Finch.

    Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia 2
    Maghreb (Tawny) Owl and Maghreb (Levaillant’s) Woodpecker.

    Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya 1
    Moussier’s Redstart.

    Morocco, Western Sahara, Algeria and Tunisia 1
    Maghreb Magpie.

    Morocco and Middle East 1
    Northern Bald Ibis.

    Algerian Nuthatch (small range in the Petite Kabylie region of the north).

    Senegal and Mali 1
    Mali Firefinch.


    Guinea-Bissau, Guinea and Sierra Leone 1
    Turati’s Boubou.

    Guinea-Bissau to Côte d'Ivoire 1
    Timneh (Grey) Parrot.

    Guinea-Bissau to Ghana 1
    Ussher's Flycatcher.

    Guinea, Sierra Leone and Côte d'Ivoire 1
    Emerald Starling.

    Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana 12
    White-breasted Guineafowl, Rufous Fishing-owl, Brown-cheeked Hornbill, Western Wattled Cuckooshrike, White-necked Rockfowl, Black-headed Rufous-warbler, Green-tailed Bristlebill, Yellow-bearded Greenbul, Rufous-winged Illadopsis, Copper-tailed Starling, Nimba Flycatcher and Red-fronted Antpecker.

    Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Côte d'Ivoire 3
    Rufous-bellied (Yellow-bellied) Wattle-eye, Sierra Leone (White-eyed) Prinia and Gola (Ballman’s) Malimbe.

    (The 14 Upper Guinea Endemic Bird Area (EBA) endemic birds are White-breasted Guineafowl, Rufous Fishing-owl, Brown-cheeked Hornbill, Western Wattled Cuckooshrike, White-necked Rockfowl, Sierra Leone Prinia, Sharpe's Apalis, Black-headed Rufous-warbler, Green-tailed Bristlebill, Yellow-bearded Greenbul, Rufous-winged Illadopsis, Copper-tailed Starling, Nimba Flycatcher and Gola Malimbe. Recent research suggests Liberian (White-winged) Greenbul may merely be an aberrant form of Icterine Greenbul)

    Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Togo 2
    Sharpe's Apalis and Yellow-chinned (Green) Sunbird.

    Guinea to Nigeria 4
    Melancholy (Gabon) Woodpecker, Fanti (Velvet-mantled) Drongo, Western Bearded Greenbul and Finsch's Flycatcher-thrush.

    Guinea to Cameroon 7
    Blue-moustached Bee-eater (also Bioko), Fire-bellied Woodpecker, Red-billed Helmetshrike, Red-cheeked Wattle-eye, Kemp's Longbill, Baumann's Greenbul and Buff-throated Sunbird.

    Guinea to Cameroon, and Mali 1
    Togo Paradise-whydah.

    Côte d'Ivoire to Cameroon 1
    Black-crowned Capuchin Babbler.

    Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria 1
    Togo (Yellow-billed) Barbet.

    Benin and Nigeria 1
    Anambra Waxbill.

    White-necked Rockfowl

    The extraordinary West African endemic, White-necked Rockfowl, or Yellow-headed Picathartes, in Bonkro Forest, Ghana, by Chris Townend.

    Ibadan Malimbe (Ibadan area and Ifon Forest in southwest).

    Nigeria and Cameroon 13
    Cameroon Olive-pigeon, Green-breasted Bush-shrike, Mount Kupe Bush-shrike, Yellow-breasted Boubou, Bamenda Apalis, Bangwa Warbler, Cameroon Mountain Greenbul, Grey-headed Greenbul, White-throated Mountain-babbler, Mountain Robin-chat, Bannerman’s Weaver, Rock Firefinch and Jos Plateau Indigobird.

    Nigeria, Cameroon and Bioko (island in Gulf of Guinea) 9
    Tullberg’s Woodpecker, Johnston’s (Elliot’s) Woodpecker, Western Mountain Sooty Boubou, Green Longtail, White-tailed Warbler, Western Mountain Greenbul, Cameroon Olive Greenbul, Cameroon Sunbird and Shelley’s Oliveback.

    Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko and Equatorial Guinea 1
    Black-capped Woodland-warbler.

    Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon 2
    Forest Swallow and Rachel’s Malimbe.

    Nigeria, Cameroon and Angola 1
    Fernando Po (Bioko) Swift.

    Mount Cameroon Francolin, Bannerman’s Turaco (Bamenda-Banso Highlands), Banded Wattle-eye (Bamenda Highlands), Mount Cameroon Speirops and Bates’s Weaver (south).

    Cameroon and Bioko (island in Gulf of Guinea) 2
    Mountain Saw-wing and Ursula’s Sunbird.

    Cameroon, Gabon and Central African Republic (CAR) 1
    Dja River Swamp-warbler.

    Cameroon and Angola 1
    Monteiro’s Bush-shrike.

    Cameroon, Angola, CAR, Republic of the Congo (RC) & Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) 1
    Bob-tailed Weaver.

    Cameroon and Chad 1
    Chad (Reichenow’s) Firefinch.

    Annobon 3
    Annobon Scops-owl, Annobon Paradise-flycatcher and Annobon White-eye.

    Bioko 2
    Bioko Batis and Bioko Speirops.

    GABON 1
    Olive-backed Forest-robin (likely to occur in adjacent Congo).

    Gabon, RC and DRC 1
    Loango Weaver.

    Gabon, RC and Angola 1
    Black-chinned Weaver.

    Gabon, CAR, RC, DRC and Angola 1
    African River Martin.

    São Tomé 18
    São Tomé (Maroon) Olive-pigeon, São Tomé Green-pigeon, Dwarf Ibis, São Tomé Scops-owl, São Tomé (Malachite) Kingfisher, São Tomé Oriole, São Tomé Paradise-flycatcher, Newton’s Fiscal, São Tomé Prinia, São Tomé White-eye, Black-capped Speirops, São Tomé Thrush, Newton’s Sunbird, Giant Sunbird, Giant Weaver, São Tomé Weaver, São Tomé Short-tail (wagtail family) and São Tomé Grosbeak.

    Príncipe 8
    Príncipe (Malachite) Kingfisher, Dohrn’s Warbler (Thrush-babbler), Príncipe White-eye, Príncipe Speirops, Príncipe Starling, Príncipe Thrush, Príncipe Sunbird and Príncipe Golden Weaver.

    São Tomé and Príncipe 2
    São Tomé Spinetail and Príncipe Seedeater.

    São Tomé, Príncipe and Annobon 1
    São Tomé (Bronze-naped) Pigeon.

    Congo Peafowl, Prigogine’s (Itombwe) Nightjar (small range in east), Congo Bay-owl (small range on Itombwe Massif in east), Grauer’s Cuckooshrike (east), Yellow-crested Helmetshrike (west Albertine Rift in east), Bedford’s Paradise-flycatcher (east), Lendu (White-browed) Crombec (east), Kabobo Apalis (east), Prigogine’s Greenbul (small range in east), Chapin’s Mountain-babbler (east), Itombwe (Chapin’s) Flycatcher (east), Prigogine’s Double-collared Sunbird (Marungu Highlands in far southeast), Rockefeller’s Sunbird (east), Upemba (Katanga) Masked Weaver (southeast), Lufira Masked Weaver (southeast), Yellow-legged Weaver (Ituri Forest in northeast) and Black-lored Waxbill (southeast).

    DRC Area 3
    Eastern Little (Black Dwarf) Hornbill, Sladen’s Barbet and Congo Sunbird.

    DRC, CAR, Chad and South Sudan 1
    Niam-niam Parrot.

    DRC, RC, CAR and Uganda 1
    Grey-capped Capuchin Babbler.

    SUDAN 1
    Red Sea Swallow (known only from a single specimen, found in May 1984 at the Sanganeb Lighthouse near Port Sudan).

    Sudan and South Sudan 1
    Cinnamon Weaver.

    Sudan and Chad 1
    Kordofan (Rufous) Sparrow.

    Djibouti Francolin (Goda and Mabla Mountains).

    Harwood’s Francolin, Moorland Francolin, Blue-winged Goose, Brown-faced (Bare-faced) Go-away-bird, Ruspoli’s Turaco (around Arero, Negele and Wadera in the south), Spot-breasted Lapwing, Yellow-fronted Parrot, Ethiopian (Stresemann’s) Bushcrow (around Mega and Yabelo in the south), White-tailed Swallow (around Mega and Yabelo in the south), Abyssinian Catbird, Kaffa (Heuglin’s) White-eye, Sombre Rockchat, Red-billed Pytilia (formerly in east Sudan), Abyssinian Longclaw, Yellow-throated Seedeater (Serin) (small range), Salvadori’s Seedeater (Serin), Ankober Serin and Ethiopian Siskin.

    (Nechisar Nightjar is known only from a single wing found on the Nechisar Plains in the southwest. Liben Lark has not been recorded in Somalia since 1922)

    Ethiopian (Stresemann's) Bushcrow

    The unique Ethiopian or Stresemann's Bushcrow is endemic to a very small area of thorn acacia country around Arero, Mega and Yabelo in southern Ethiopia where this image was captured by David Beadle.

    Ethiopia and Eritrea 17 (+ Ethiopia only (18) = 35)
    White-collared Pigeon, Rouget’s Rail, Wattled Ibis, Banded Barbet, Abyssinian Woodpecker, Black-winged Lovebird, Ethiopian Black-headed Oriole, White-backed Black Tit, Blanford’s Lark, Ethiopian Cisticola, White-billed Starling, Ethiopian (Groundscraper) Thrush, Abyssinian Slaty-flycatcher, White-winged Cliff-chat, Ruppell’s Chat, Rusty-breasted (Red-breasted) Wheatear and Yellow-rumped Seedeater.

    Ethiopia, Sudan and South Sudan 1
    Ethiopian (Black-faced) Firefinch.

    Ethiopia, Sudan, South Sudan and Somalia 1
    White-rumped Babbler.

    Ethiopia and South Sudan 1
    Abyssinian (Fawn-breasted) Waxbill.

    Ethiopia, Eritrea and Sudan 2
    Erckel’s Francolin and White-headed (Cretzschmar’s) Babbler.

    Ethiopia, Eritrea and South Sudan 3
    White-cheeked Turaco, Ethiopian (Blue-breasted) Bee-eater and Ethiopian (Heuglin’s) White-eye.

    Ethiopia and Somalia 5
    Chestnut-naped Francolin, White-winged Collared-dove, Little Brown Bustard, Philippa’s (Short-billed) Crombec and Somali Wheatear.

    Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia 1
    Brown-rumped Seedeater.

    Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia and Djibouti 1
    Somali (Common) Bulbul.

    Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia and Sudan 1
    Thick-billed Raven.

    Ethiopia, Eritrea and Kenya 1
    Abyssinian (African) Citril.

    Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya 12
    Somali Bee-eater, Red-naped Bushshrike, Collared Lark, Gillett’s Lark, Somali Short-toed Lark, Dodson’s (Common) Bulbul, Scaly Babbler, White-crowned Starling, Donaldson-Smith’s Sparrow-weaver, Golden Palm Weaver, Juba (Salvadori’s) Weaver and Northern Grosbeak-canary.

    Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Djibouti 1
    Somali Sparrow.

    Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and South Sudan 1
    Chestnut-headed Sparrow-lark.

    Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda 3
    Yellow-vented Eremomela, Pale Prinia and Bristle-crowned Starling.

    Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania 10
    Vulturine Guineafowl, Red-bellied (Orange-bellied) Parrot, Short-tailed Lark, Somali Crombec, Banded Warbler (Parisoma), Kenya (Pale) White-eye, Golden-breasted Starling, Fischer’s Starling, Bare-eyed Thrush and Black-bellied Sunbird.

    Ethiopia and Kenya 3
    Black-fronted Francolin, Grant’s (Violet) Woodhoopoe and Masked Lark.

    Ethiopia, Kenya and South Sudan 1
    Star-spotted Nightjar.

    Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and South Sudan 1
    Jackson’s Hornbill.

    Ethiopia, Kenya and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) 1
    African (Abyssinian) Long-eared Owl.

    Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania 2
    Friedmann’s Lark and Black-capped Social-weaver.

    SOMALIA 10
    Somali Pigeon, Archer’s (Augur) Buzzard, Lesser Hoopoe-lark, Sharpe’s (Rufous-naped) Lark, Somali (Long-billed) Lark, Ash’s Lark, Obbia Lark, Somali Thrush, Somali (Golden-winged) Grosbeak and Warsangli Linnet.

    Somalia and Socotra (Yemen) 1
    Socotra (Abyssinian) White-eye.

    Somalia and Kenya 4
    Manda (Coastal) Boubou, Violet-breasted Sunbird, Red (Red-headed) Weaver and Malindi Pipit.

    Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania 10
    Fischer’s Turaco, White-headed Mousebird, Mombasa Woodpecker, Eastern Black-headed Batis, Zanzibar Boubou (and Zanzibar), Long-tailed Fiscal, Coastal Cisticola, Little Yellow Flycatcher, Fire-fronted Bishop and Pangani Longclaw.

    KENYA 13
    Jackson’s Francolin (also recorded in Uganda), Brown-and-white (White-headed) Barbet, Williams’s Lark, Taita Apalis, Tana River Cisticola, Aberdare Cisticola, Taita White-eye, Kulal White-eye, Kikuyu White-eye, Hinde’s Babbler, Taita Thrush, Clarke’s Weaver and Sharpe’s Longclaw.

    Kenya and Uganda 1
    Elgon (Moorland) Francolin.

    Kenya, Uganda and DRC 1
    Chapin’s Flycatcher.

    Kenya and DRC 1
    Turner’s Eremomela.

    Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania 3
    Hartlaub's Turaco, Karamoja Apalis and Lynes’s (Wailing) Cisticola.

    Kenya and Tanzania 26
    Sokoke Scops-owl, Usambiro (D’Arnaud’s) Barbet, Fischer’s Lovebird, Grey-crested Helmetshrike, Forest (Short-tailed) Batis, Red-throated Tit, Buff-bellied (African) Penduline-tit, Athi Short-toed Lark, Stripe-faced Greenbul, Eastern Mountain Greenbul, Mbulu White-eye, Northern Pied Babbler, Hildebrandt's Starling, Abbott's Starling, Amani Sunbird, Eastern Double-collared Sunbird, Usambara Double-collared Sunbird, Gorgeous (Beautiful) Sunbird, Tsavo Sunbird, Rufous-tailed Weaver (only just in Kenya), Jackson’s Widowbird, Taveta Golden Weaver, Kenya (Rufous) Sparrow, Swahili (Grey-headed) Sparrow, Sokoke Pipit and Southern Grosbeak-canary.

    Kenya, Tanzania and Malawi 1
    Kenrick’s Starling.

    Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique 3
    Kretschmer’s Longbill, Uluguru Violet-backed Sunbird and Zanzibar Red Bishop.

    Photograph of Sokoke Scops-owl

    A pair of Sokoke Scops-owls in Sokoke Forest, Kenya by Lars Petersson. This tiny owl (15 cm/6 inches) occurs only in the red soil Cynometra area of the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest in southeast Kenya and the foothill forests of the East Usambara Mountains in northeast Tanzania.

    UGANDA 1
    Fox’s Weaver.

    Uganda and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) 7
    Nahan’s Partridge (Francolin), Chestnut (African Barred) Owlet, Grauer’s (Green) Broadbill, Ituri Batis, Sassi’s Olive Greenbul, Oberlander’s Ground-thrush and Golden-naped Weaver.

    Uganda, DRC, Rwanda and Burundi 23
    Handsome Francolin, Rwenzori Turaco, Dwarf Honeyguide, Rwenzori Batis, Albertine Sooty Boubou, Stripe-breasted Tit, Grauer’s Warbler, Rwenzori Apalis, Black-faced Apalis, Grauer’s Swamp-warbler, Red-faced Woodland-warbler, Neumann’s (Short-tailed) Warbler, Red-collared Mountain-babbler, Yellow-eyed Black-flycatcher, Archer’s Robin-chat, Red-throated Alethe, Blue-headed Sunbird, Purple-breasted Sunbird, Rwenzori (Stuhlmann’s) Double-collared Sunbird, Regal Sunbird (range also reaches Tanzania), Strange Weaver, Dusky Crimsonwing and Shelley’s Crimsonwing.

    (The 36 Albertine Rift Endemic Birds are Handsome Francolin, Prigogine's Nightjar, Rwenzori Turaco, Congo Bay-owl, Albertine (African Barred) Owlet, Dwarf Honeyguide, Grauer's (Green) Broadbill, Grauer's Cuckooshrike, Yellow-crested Helmetshrike, Rwenzori Batis, Albertine Sooty Boubou, Stripe-breasted Tit, Lendu Crombec, Grauer's Warbler, Rwenzori Apalis, Black-faced Apalis, Kabobo Apalis, Kungwe Apalis, Grauer's Swamp-warbler, Prigogine's Greenbul, Red-faced Woodland-warbler, Neumann's (Short-tailed) Warbler, Red-collared Mountain-babbler, Chapin's Mountain-babbler, Chapin's Flycatcher, Yellow-eyed Black-flycatcher, Archer's Robin-chat, Red-throated Alethe, Blue-headed Sunbird, Purple-breasted Sunbird, Rwenzori (Stuhlmann’s) Double-collared Sunbird, Regal Sunbird, Rockefeller's Sunbird, Strange Weaver, Dusky Crimsonwing and Shelley's Crimsonwing)

    Uganda, DRC and Tanzania 2
    Weyns’s Weaver and Jameson’s Antpecker.

    Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania 1
    Red-faced Barbet.

    Uganda and Burundi 1
    Willard’s Sooty Boubou.

    Rwanda and DRC 1
    Albertine (African Barred) Owlet.

    Rwanda, Burundi, DRC and Tanzania 1
    Kungwe Apalis.

    TANZANIA 39 (Mainland 35)
    Widespread 7
    Grey-breasted Francolin, Tanzania Red-billed Hornbill, Emin’s (D’Arnaud’s) Barbet, Yellow-collared Lovebird, Grey-breasted Illadopsis, Ashy Starling and Mbulu (Olive-flanked) Robin-chat.

    Far North 3
    Beesley’s Lark, South Pare White-eye and Kilimanjaro White-eye.

    Eastern Arc Mountains 20
    Udzungwa Forest-partridge, Rubeho Forest-partridge, Usambara Eagle-owl, Uluguru Bush-shrike, Usambara Hyliota, Long-billed Forest-warbler (Tailorbird) (east Usambaras), Winifred’s (Mrs Moreau’s) Warbler (Udzungwas and Ulugurus), Rubeho (Mrs Moreau’s) Warbler (Rubeho-Ukaguru Mountains), Yellow-throated Mountain Greenbul (Udzungwas, Ukagurus and Ngurus), Uluguru Mountain Greenbul, Montane Tiny (Usambara) Greenbul (Usambaras, Ngurus and Nguus), Usambara Thrush, Usambara Akalat, Iringa Akalat, Rubeho Akalat, Banded Sunbird, Moreau’s Sunbird, Loveridge’s Sunbird (Ulugurus), Rufous-winged Sunbird (east Udzungwas) and Usambara Weaver (Usambaras, Ulugurus and Udzungwas).

    Central-south 3
    White-lined (White-eared) Barbet, Kilombero Weaver and Kipengere Seedeater (Iringa and Njombe Highlands).

    East 1
    Hofmann’s (Shelley’s) Sunbird.

    Southeast 1
    Reichenow’s (Forest) Batis (presumably also occurs in Mozambique).

    Pemba Island 4
    Pemba Green-pigeon, Pemba Scops-owl, Pemba White-eye and Pemba Sunbird.

    Tanzania and Malawi 3
    Churring Cisticola, Shelley’s Greenbul and Spot-throat.

    Tanzania and Zambia 1
    Tanzanian Masked Weaver.

    Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia 10
    Dark Batis, Fulleborn’s Boubou, Chapin’s Apalis, Black-lored Cisticola, Sharpe’s (Yellow-streaked) Greenbul, Rusty-flanked (Olive-flanked) Robin-chat, Sharpe’s Akalat, Whyte’s (Ludwig’s/Montane) Double-collared Sunbird, Montane (Buff-shouldered) Widowbird and Yellow-browed Seedeater.

    Tanzania, Zambia and Angola 1
    Oustalet’s Sunbird.

    Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique 3
    Stierling’s Woodpecker, White-winged Apalis (possibly still present in Kenya) and Olive-headed Greenbul.

    Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia 6
    Black-browed Mountain Greenbul, White-chested Alethe, Forest Double-collared Sunbird, Bertram’s Weaver, Olive-headed Weaver and Vincent’s (Cape) Bunting.

    Tanzania and Mozambique 3
    Reichenow’s Woodpecker, Red-capped Forest-warbler (African Tailorbird) and Dapple-throat.

    Tanzania, Mozambique and Zimbabwe 1
    Swynnerton’s Robin.

    Mozambique Forest-warbler (small range on Njesi Plateau in northwest) and Namuli Apalis.

    Mozambique and Zimbabwe 2
    Briar (Roberts’s) Warbler and Chirinda Apalis.

    Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi 1
    Stripe-cheeked Greenbul.

    Mozambique and Malawi 2
    Olive-flanked Robin-chat and Thyolo (Cholo) Alethe.

    Mozambique, Malawi and Zambia 1
    Malawi (Cape) Batis.

    MALAWI 1
    Yellow-throated (Bar-throated) Apalis (likely to occur in adjacent Mozambique).

    Malawi, Zambia and DRC 1
    Whyte’s (Shelley’s) Francolin.

    ZAMBIA 3
    White-chested (Yellow-rumped) Tinkerbird (small range in northwest), Zambian (Chaplin’s) Barbet and Black-cheeked Lovebird.

    Zambia and DRC 2
    Zambian (Papyrus) Yellow Warbler and Katanga Masked Weaver.

    Zambia, DRC and Angola 7
    Margaret’s (Boulton’s) Batis, Dambo (Cloud-scraping) Cisticola, Black-and-rufous Swallow, Bannerman’s Sunbird, Bocage’s Weaver, Bar-winged Weaver and Grimwood’s Longclaw.

    ANGOLA 19
    Grey-striped Francolin, Swierstra’s Francolin, Red-crested Turaco, Red-backed Mousebird, Pale-throated (Naked-faced) Barbet, White-bellied (White-headed) Barbet, Gabela Helmetshrike, White-fronted Wattle-eye, Braun’s (Luhder’s) Bush-shrike, Gabela (Luhder’s) Bush-shrike, Pulitzer’s Longbill, Hartert’s Camaroptera, Huambo Cisticola, Angola (White-throated) Greenbul, Benguela Long-tailed (Meves’s) Starling, Angola Slaty-flycatcher, Gabela Akalat, Montane (Ludwig’s) Double-collared Sunbird and Angola Waxbill.

    Angola and DRC 1
    Bubbling Cisticola, Black-tailed (Slender-tailed) Cisticola, Pale-olive Greenbul, White-headed Robin-chat and Bocage’s Sunbird.

    Angola, DRC and Republic of Congo (RC) 3
    Brazza’s Martin, Congo Sand Martin and Pale-billed (African) Firefinch.

    Angola and São Tomé 1
    Golden-backed Bishop (possibly introduced to São Tomé).

    Angola and Namibia 16
    Hartlaub’s Francolin, Ruppell’s Bustard, Monteiro’s Hornbill, Damara Red-billed Hornbill, Violet Woodhoopoe, Ruppell’s Parrot, Ground Batis (White-tailed Shrike), Carp’s Tit, Gray’s Lark, Benguela Long-billed Lark, Rockrunner, Bare-cheeked Babbler, Cunene (Meves’s) Long-tailed Starling, Herero Chat, Angola Cave-chat and Cinderella Waxbill.

    Angola, Namibia and Botswana 1
    Black-faced Babbler.

    Angola, Namibia and South Africa 7
    African Oystercatcher, Rosy-faced Lovebird, Grey-backed (Red-headed) Cisticola, Pale-winged Starling, Sickle-winged Chat, Mountain Wheatear and White-throated Canary.

    Angola, Namibia, South Africa and Botswana 6
    Ludwig's Bustard, Burchell’s Courser, Short-toed Rock-thrush, Karoo Chat, Tractrac Chat and Stark’s Lark.

    Dune Lark.

    Namibia and South Africa 25
    (A crane, a penguin and seven larks)
    Blue Crane, Karoo Bustard, African (Jackass) Penguin, Crowned Cormorant, Bank Cormorant, Hartlaub’s Gull, Black Harrier, Jackal Buzzard, Grey Lark, Karoo Long-billed Lark, Cape Long-billed Lark, Barlow’s (Dune) Lark, Cape Clapper Lark, Sclater’s Lark, Large-billed Lark, Karoo (Yellow-rumped) Eremomela, Namaqua Warbler, Cinnamon-breasted (Kopje) Warbler, Karoo Prinia, Layard’s Warbler, Orange River White-eye, Karoo Scrub-robin, Southern Double-collared Sunbird, Cape Weaver and Black-headed Canary.

    Namibia, South Africa and Botswana 7
    Northern Black (White-quilled) Bustard, White-backed Mousebird, Fairy Flycatcher, Black-eared Sparrow-lark, Rufous-eared Warbler, Karoo Thrush and Sociable Weaver.

    Southern Black Bustard, Hottentot Buttonquail, Forest Buzzard, Knysna Woodpecker, Cape Parrot, Cape Rockjumper, Agulhas Long-billed Lark, Karoo Lark, Red Lark, Rudd’s Lark, Botha’s Lark, Victorin’s Warbler, Knysna Warbler, Cape Bulbul, Cape Sugarbird, Orange-breasted Sunbird, Protea Canary and Cape Siskin.

    SOUTH AFRICA including Lesotho and Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) 20 (+ 18 in South Africa only = 38 for South Africa ‘region’)
    Grey-winged Francolin, Blue Bustard (not Eswatini), Knysna Turaco (not Lesotho), Southern Bald Ibis, Ground Woodpecker, Southern Crested-flycatcher (not Lesotho), Drakensberg Rockjumper (not Eswatini), Eastern Long-billed Lark, Drakensberg Prinia (not Lesotho), Bush Blackcap, African Pied Starling, Chorister Robin-chat, Sentinel Rock-thrush, Cape Rock-thrush, Buff-streaked Chat, Greater Double-collared Sunbird, Yellow-tufted Pipit, Yellow-breasted Pipit (not Eswatini), Forest Canary and Drakensberg Siskin (not Eswatini).

    Photograph of Drakensberg Rockjumper

    Drakensberg Rockjumper in the Drakensberg Mountains by Dubi Shapiro. One of the two species in the rockjumper family endemic to South Africa including Eswatini.

    South Africa and Botswana 1
    Short-clawed Lark.

    South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique 2
    Cape White-eye and Fiscal Flycatcher.

    South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe 1
    Cape (Orange-throated) Longclaw.

    South Africa and Mozambique 5
    Southern Tchagra, Brown Scrub-robin, Sentinel Rock-thrush, Neergaard’s Sunbird and Pink-throated Twinspot.

    South Africa, Mozambique and Malawi 1
    Rudd’s Apalis.

    South Africa, Mozambique, Malawi and Zimbabwe 1
    Lemon-breasted Canary (Seedeater).

    South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe 5
    Cape Grassbird, Barratt’s Warbler, Gurney’s Sugarbird, Swee Waxbill and Cape Canary.

    South Africa and Zimbabwe 1
    Melodious (Latakoo) Lark.

    (Four endemic families: mesites (3 species), ground-rollers (5), asities (4) and tetrakas (11), as well as 11 couas and 17 vangas)
    Madagascar Partridge, Madagascar Pochard (tiny range), Meller’s Duck, Madagascar (Bernier’s) Teal, Madagascar Grebe, White-breasted Mesite, Brown Mesite, Subdesert Mesite, Madagascar Green-pigeon, Madagascar Sandgrouse, Collared Nightjar, Giant Coua, Coquerel’s Coua, Red-breasted Coua, Red-fronted Coua, Running Coua, Red-capped Coua, Olive-capped (Red-capped) Coua, Crested Coua, Chestnut-vented (Crested) Coua, Verreaux’s Coua, Blue Coua, Madagascar Flufftail, Slender-billed Flufftail, Madagascar Wood-rail, Tsingy Wood-rail (small range), Madagascar Rail, Sakalava Rail, Madagascar Crested Ibis, Black-banded Plover, Madagascar Three-banded Plover, Madagascar Jacana, Madagascar Snipe, Madagascar Buttonquail (introduced to several nearby islands), Madagascar Red Owl, White-browed Owl, Torotoroka (Malagasy) Scops-owl, Rainforest (Malagasy) Scops-owl, Madagascar Long-eared Owl, Madagascar Cuckoo-hawk, Madagascar Serpent-eagle, Madagascar Harrier-hawk, Madagascar Sparrowhawk, Henst’s Goshawk, Madagascar Fish-eagle, Madagascar Buzzard, Madagascar Hoopoe, Short-legged Ground-roller, Scaly Ground-roller, Long-tailed Ground-roller, Pitta-like Ground-roller, Rufous-headed Ground-roller, Madagascar Pygmy-kingfisher, Banded Kestrel, Black (Lesser Vasa) Parrot, Grey-headed Lovebird, Velvet Asity, Schlegel’s Asity, Common Sunbird-asity, Yellow-bellied Sunbird-asity, Madagascar Cuckooshrike, Archbold’s Newtonia, Common Newtonia, Red-tailed Newtonia, Dark Newtonia, Tylas Vanga, Red-tailed Vanga, Red-shouldered Vanga, Nuthatch Vanga, Chabert Vanga, Madagascar Blue Vanga, Crossley’s Vanga, Ward’s Flycatcher, Hook-billed Vanga, Rufous Vanga, Helmet Vanga, Pollen’s Vanga, Lafresnaye’s Vanga, Van Dam’s Vanga, Bernier’s Vanga, Sickle-billed Vanga, White-headed Vanga, Madagascar Lark, Green Jery, Common Jery, Stripe-throated Jery, Subdesert (Stripe-throated) Jery, Subdesert Bush-warbler, Madagascar Swamp-warbler, Brown Emu-tail, Madagascar Grassbird (Grey Emutail), White-throated Oxylabes, Long-billed Tetraka, Wedge-tailed Tetraka (Jery), Thamnornis, Spectacled Tetraka, Appert’s Tetraka, Grey-crowned Tetraka, Dusky Tetraka, Madagascar Yellowbrow (Yellow-browed Oxylabes), Cryptic Warbler, Rand’s Warbler, Madagascar Plain Martin, Madagascar Starling, Pelzeln’s Magpie-robin, Madagascar Magpie-robin, Littoral Rock-thrush, Amber Mountain (Forest) Rock-thrush (far north), Forest Rock-thrush, Madagascar Stonechat, Long-billed (Madagascar) Sunbird, Red Fody, Forest Fody, Nelicourvi Weaver, Sakalava Weaver, Madagascar Munia and Madagascar Wagtail.

    (Madagascar Pond-heron, Madagascar Pratincole and Mascarene Martin all range to east Africa during their non-breeding seasons)

    Photograph of Helmet Vanga

    Helmet Vanga by Nigel Voaden, one of Madagascar's 17 endemic vangas.

    Madagascar and Comoros 12
    Madagascar Spinetail (Grand Comoro), Madagascar Palm-swift, Madagascar Swift, Madagascar (Humblot’s) Heron, Madagascar (Marsh) Harrier, Frances’s Sparrowhawk, Cuckoo Roller, Madagascar Kingfisher, Madagascar Kestrel, Crested Drongo, Madagascar Paradise-flycatcher and Madagascar Brush-warbler.

    Madagascar, Comoros and Seychelles 2
    Madagascar Turtle-dove and Madagascar Bulbul.

    Madagascar, Comoros, Seychelles and Mayotte 1
    Madagascar White-eye.

    Madagascar and Aldabra 2
    White-throated Rail and Madagascar Sacred Ibis.

    Madagascar and Seychelles 2
    Souimanga Sunbird and Madagascar Cisticola.

    COMOROS 24
    More than one island 5
    Comoro (Black) Parrot, Comoro Cuckooshrike, Comoro Blue Vanga, Comoro Thrush and Humblot’s Sunbird.

    Moheli (Mwali) 6
    Comoro Green-pigeon, Moheli Scops-owl, Moheli Brush-warbler, Moheli Bulbul, Moheli White-eye and Moheli (Long-billed) Sunbird.

    Anjouan 4
    Anjouan Scops-owl, Anjouan Brush-warbler, Anjouan White-eye and Anjouan Sunbird.

    Grand Comoro 9
    Grand Comoro Scops-owl, Comoro Drongo, Grand Comoro Brush-warbler, Grand Comoro Bulbul, Mount Karthala (Comoro) White-eye, Kirk’s White-eye, Humblot’s (Grand Comoro) Flycatcher, Grand Comoro (Long-billed) Sunbird and Grand Comoro Fody.

    Comoros and Aldabra 1
    Comoro Blue-pigeon.

    Comoros and Mayotte (France) 2
    Comoro (Olive) Pigeon and Red-headed Fody (Moheli, Anjouan and Mayotte).

    Mayotte Scops-owl, Mayotte Drongo, Chestnut-sided (Mayotte) White-eye and Mayotte Sunbird.

    Aldabra 4
    Aldabra Drongo, Aldabra White-eye, Abbott's (Souimanga) Sunbird and Aldabra Fody.

    Seychelles Blue-pigeon, Seychelles Swiftlet, Seychelles Scops-owl, Seychelles Kestrel, Seychelles Parrot (Praslin and Curieuse), Seychelles Paradise-flycatcher (mainly La Digue and Denis), Seychelles Warbler, Seychelles Bulbul, Seychelles White-eye (Mahe and Conception), Seychelles Magpie-robin, Seychelles Sunbird and Seychelles Fody.

    Mauritius 8
    Pink Pigeon, Mauritius Kestrel, Echo Parakeet, Mauritius Cuckooshrike, Mauritius Bulbul, Mauritius (Olive) White-eye, Mauritius Grey White-eye and Mauritius Fody.

    Rodrigues 2
    Rodrigues Warbler and Rodrigues Fody.

    Mauritius and Reunion 2
    Mascarene Swiftlet and Mascarene Paradise-flycatcher.

    REUNION (France) 7
    Mascarene Petrel, Reunion Marsh-harrier, Reunion Cuckooshrike, Reunion Bulbul, Reunion (Olive) White-eye, Reunion Grey White-eye and Reunion Stonechat.

    Amsterdam Albatross nests on this island and ranges at sea to the southern Indian Ocean as far as southern Australia but it is very rarely identified away from Amsterdam Island.

    Marion and Prince Edward Islands (South Africa), and Crozet Islands (France) 1
    Crozet (Imperial) Shag.

    Marion and Prince Edward Islands, Crozet Islands and Kerguelen (France) Islands 1
    Kerguelen Tern.

    Marion and Prince Edward Islands, and Crozet, Kerguelen and Heard (Australia) Islands 1
    Black-faced Sheathbill.

    Crozet and Kerguelen Islands 1
    Southern (Eaton’s) Pintail.

    Kerguelen Islands 1
    Kerguelen Shag.

    HEARD ISLAND (Australia) 1
    Heard Island (Imperial) Shag.


    Scottish Crossbill.

    CORSICA (France) 1
    Corsican Nuthatch.

    Corsica, Sardinia and satellite islands 1
    Corsican (Citril) Finch.

    (Moltoni's (Subalpine) Warbler breeds on Corsica and Sardinia, as well as around the Ligurian Sea (in northern Italy for example) and the Balearic Islands. It winters in Algeria and Sub-Saharan West Africa). Marmora's Warbler is resident on Corsica and Sardinia, and other islands in the Ligurian Sea next to northern Italy. It winters to northern Africa. Mediterranean (Spotted) Flycatcher breeds on Corsica, Sardinia and the Balearic Islands, and winters in west Africa. Italian sparrow occurs on Corsica, in northern Italy and neighbouring regions (with intermediates with House Sparrow in the Alps) and the rest of Italy including Sicily and other islands in the Mediterranean (with intermediates with Spanish Sparrow across central and southern Italy, and on Malta, Crete etc.)

    France, Spain and Portugal 2
    Iberian Green Woodpecker and Iberian (Southern) Grey Shrike.

    Spain and Portugal 2
    Spanish Imperial Eagle and Iberian Azure-winged Magpie.

    Balearic (Marmora's) Warbler.

    CYPRUS 1
    Cyprus Scops-owl (may winter in Israel).

    (Cyprus Warbler winters in Israel, Egypt and Sudan, and Cyprus Wheatear winters in Sudan, South Sudan and Ethiopia)

    Lesbos Island (Greece), Turkey, Georgia and Russia 1
    Krueper’s Nuthatch.

    Turkey, Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia 1
    Caucasian (Black) Grouse.

    Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia 1
    Caucasian Snowcock.


    Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran 1
    Iraq Babbler.

    Syria, Jordan and the Arabian Peninsula 1
    Arabian (Dunn’s) Lark.

    Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan and Egypt 1
    Syrian Serin.

    Israel, Jordan, Egypt and Saudi Arabia 1
    Sinai Rosefinch.

    Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula 3
    Arabian Green Bee-eater, Arabian Babbler and Tristram’s Starling.

    Asir Magpie (southwest).

    Saudi Arabia and Yemen 9
    Philby’s Partridge, Arabian Woodpecker, Yemen Warbler, Yemen Thrush, Buff-breasted (Red-breasted) Wheatear, Arabian (Shining) Sunbird, Arabian Waxbill, Arabian Serin and Yemen Linnet.

    Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman 5
    Arabian Partridge, Arabian (African) Scops-owl, Arabian Wheatear, Arabian (Golden-winged) Grosbeak and Yemen Serin.

    Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Djibouti and Somalia 1
    Arabian Golden Sparrow.

    Oman, United Arab Emirates and Iran 1
    Omani Owl.

    YEMEN 1
    Yemen (Radde’s) Accentor.

    Socotra (Yemen) 10
    Socotra Scops-owl, Socotra Buzzard, Socotra Warbler, Socotra Cisticola, Socotra Starling, Socotra Sunbird, Socotra Sparrow, Abd al Kuri Sparrow, Socotra (Golden-winged) Grosbeak and Socotra Bunting.

    IRAN 1
    Iranian Ground-jay.

    Iran and Azerbaijan 1
    Caspian Tit.

    Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan 1
    Afghan (Common) Babbler.


    Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan 1
    Turkestan (Pander’s) Ground-jay.

    Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan 1
    Zarudny’s (Desert) Sparrow.

    Turkmenistan and Afghanistan 1
    Afghan Snowfinch.

    RUSSIA 2
    Siberian Grouse (presumed extinct in northeast China) and Siberian Nuthatch.

    Russia and Mongolia 1
    Black-billed Capercaillie.

    Russia, Mongolia and China 4
    Mongolian (Henderson’s) Ground-jay, Mongolian Lark, Reed Parrotbill and Small (Pere David’s) Snowfinch.

    Mongolia and China 1
    Mongolian Accentor.

    Russia and China 1
    Yellow-browed Bunting.

    Russia, China and North Korea 1
    Snowy-browed Nuthatch.

    Russia, China, North Korea, South Korea and Japan 2
    Varied Tit and Japanese Waxwing.

    Russia, North Korea, South Korea and Japan 1
    Steller’s Sea-eagle.

    South Korea and Japan 3
    Japanese (Black) Woodpigeon (Small islands. Rare, perhaps extinct in China), Japanese Murrelet and Japanese Wagtail.

    Russia, China and Japan 2
    Blakiston’s (Fish) Owl and Japanese Robin.

    Russia and Japan 4
    Long-billed Murrelet, Spectacled Guillemot, Japanese Accentor and Grey Bunting.

    JAPAN 20
    Mainland 3
    Copper Pheasant, Green Pheasant and Japanese Woodpecker.

    Mainland and Ryukyu Islands, Nansei-Shoto Archipelago 1
    Ryukyu Minivet.

    Ryukyu Islands, Nansei-Shoto Archipelago 3
    Ryukyu (Whistling) Green-pigeon, Ryukyu Robin and Ryukyu (Narcissus) Flycatcher.

    Amami-Oshima, Ryukyu Islands, Nansei-Shoto Archipelago 4
    Amami Woodcock, Amami (White-backed) Woodpecker, Amami (Lidth’s) Jay and Amami Thrush.

    Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, Nansei-Shoto Archipelago 3
    Okinawa Rail, Okinawa Woodpecker and Okinawa (Ryukyu) Robin.

    Iriomote, Ryukyu Islands, Nansei-Shoto Archipelago 1
    Iriomote Tit.

    Ryukyu Islands and Izu Islands 1
    Izu Thrush.

    Izu Islands 2
    Izu (Owston’s) Tit and Izu (Japanese) Robin.

    Bonin Islands 1
    Bonin White-eye (Honeyeater).

    Bonin Islands and Volcano Islands 1
    Bannerman’s (Tropical) Shearwater.

    Japan, Taiwan and Philippines 3
    Black-chinned Fruit-dove, Ryukyu Scops-owl (Nansei-Shoto Archipelago, Lanyu Island off southeast Taiwan, and the Batanes and Babuyan Islands off northern Luzon, Philippines) and Ijima’s Leaf-warbler (Izu and Tokara Islands, Japan, in summer, migrating south via Taiwan to the Philippines during the winter when rarely seen).

    Japan and Philippines 1
    Yellow Bunting.

    CHINA 72 (+ 6 on Hainan Island)
    (A monal, a tragopan, six pheasants, a ground-jay, five parrotbills and ten laughingthrushes)
    Sichuan Partridge, Collared (White-necklaced) Partridge, Przevalski’s Partridge, Chinese Bamboo Partridge, Chestnut-throated (Verreaux’s) Partridge, Chinese Monal, Cabot’s Tragopan, Elliot’s Pheasant, Reeves’s Pheasant, Golden Pheasant, White Eared-pheasant, Brown Eared-pheasant, Blue Eared-pheasant, Chinese (Severtzov’s) Grouse, Asian Crested Ibis (being reintroduced to Japan), Sichuan (Pere David’s) Owl, Chinese Barbet, Dark-bodied (Eurasian Three-toed) Woodpecker, Giant (Chinese) Grey Shrike, Sichuan Jay, Xinjiang Ground-jay, Yellow-bellied Tit, White-browed Tit, Rusty-breasted (Pere David’s) Tit, Sichuan Tit, Chinese Cupwing, Sichuan Grasshopper-warbler, Emei Leaf-warbler (winter range unknown, possibly Myanmar), Gansu Leaf-warbler (winter range unknown), Alpine Leaf-warbler, Sooty Tit, Silver-throated Tit, Rufous-tailed Babbler, Tarim Hill-warbler (Babbler), Grey-hooded Fulvetta, Chinese Fulvetta, Spectacled Fulvetta, Three-toed Parrotbill, Spectacled Parrotbill, Yunnan (Brown-winged) Parrotbill, Grey-hooded Parrotbill, Rusty-throated Parrotbill, Grey-sided Scimitar-babbler, Nonggang Babbler, Golden-fronted Fulvetta, Huet’s (Grey-cheeked) Fulvetta, Barred Laughingthrush, White-speckled (Biet’s) Laughingthrush, Giant Laughingthrush, Snowy-cheeked Laughingthrush, Plain (Pere David’s) Laughingthrush, Giant Babax, Tibetan Babax, Buffy Laughingthrush, Blue-crowned (Yellow-throated) Laughingthrush, Brown-cheeked (Prince Henry’s) Laughingthrush, Emei Shan (Grey-faced) Liocichla, Sichuan Treecreeper, Przevalski’s (White-cheeked) Nuthatch, Chinese Thrush, Chinese Shortwing, Ala Shan Redstart, Przevalski’s Rosefinch (Pinktail), Tibetan Snowfinch, Pink-rumped Rosefinch, Chinese Beautiful Rosefinch, Tibetan Rosefinch, Sillem’s Rosefinch, Three-banded Rosefinch (likely to occur in adjacent Indian subcontinent), Chinese White-browed Rosefinch (recorded in India), Tibetan Bunting and Slaty Bunting.

    (Blackthroat breeds in north-central China. Its non-breeding grounds are unknown but it has been recorded in northwest Thailand although possibly only as a vagrant)

    (Vaurie’s Nightjar is known only from the type specimen from Pishan, southwest Xinjiang, in the west)

    Hainan 6
    Hainan Partridge, Hainan Peacock-pheasant, Hainan (White-winged) Magpie, Hainan Leaf-warbler, Hainan (Black-throated) Laughingthrush and Hainan (Fork-tailed) Sunbird.

    Photograph of Reeve's Pheasant

    Reeve's Pheasant in Dongzhai Nature Reserve by Simon Colenutt. This incredible bird, endemic to China, has possibly the longest tail feathers of any bird, reportedly up to 2.4 m (7.9 ft) long.

    China and North Korea 2
    Beijing Hill-warbler and Jankowski’s (Rufous-backed) Bunting.

    China and Afghanistan 1
    Pale Rosefinch.

    China and Indian Subcontinent 1
    Red-headed Bullfinch.

    China and India 7
    Buff-throated (Szechenyi’s) Partridge, Salim Ali’s (Pacific) Swift, Lord Derby’s Parakeet, Tibetan Lark, Crested Tit-warbler, Elliot’s Laughingthrush and Yunnan Nuthatch.

    China, India and Central Asia 1
    Tibetan Sandgrouse.

    China, India and Nepal 4
    Tibetan Partridge, Black-winged Snowfinch, White-rumped Snowfinch and Spot-winged Rosefinch.

    China, India, Nepal and Bhutan 5
    Coral-billed Scimitar-babbler, Blackish-breasted Babbler (Wedge-billed Wren-babbler), Hoary-throated Barwing, Rufous-necked Snowfinch and Plain-backed (Blanford’s) Snowfinch.

    China, India, Nepal, Bhutan and Central Asia 1
    Ground Tit (Hume’s Ground Jay).

    China, India and Bhutan 4
    Chestnut-breasted Partridge, Tibetan Eared-pheasant, Black-necked Crane and White-breasted Parrotbill.

    China, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar 1

    China, India and Myanmar 6
    Black-browed Tit, Grey-bellied Wren-babbler, Chevron-breasted Babbler (Wedge-billed Wren-babbler), Beautiful Sibia, Grey Sibia and Collared Myna.

    China and Myanmar 6
    Lady Amherst’s Pheasant, Black-bibbed Tit, Brown-winged Parrotbill, Chinese Babax, Burmese (Vinous-breasted) Myna and Sharpe’s Rosefinch.

    China, Myanmar and Thailand 1
    Giant Nuthatch.

    China, Myanmar and Vietnam 1
    White-collared Yuhina.

    China, Mynamar, Vietnam and Laos 1
    Black-streaked Scimitar-babbler.

    China, Myanmar, Vietnam and Cambodia 1
    Chinese Grass-bird.

    China and Vietnam 11
    White-eared Night-heron, Collared Crow, Chestnut Bulbul, Ashy-throated Parrotbill, Pale-throated Wren-babbler, Grey Laughingthrush, Eastern Moustached Laughingthrush, Masked Laughingthrush, Red-winged Laughingthrush, Streaked Barwing and Sichuan Forest (Alpine) Thrush.

    China, Vietnam and Laos 7
    White-winged Magpie, Limestone Leaf-warbler, David’s (Grey-cheeked) Fulvetta, Chinese Hwamei, Rufous-cheeked Laughingthrush (Hainan Island, China), Yellow-billed Nuthatch (Hainan Island, China) and Fork-tailed Sunbird.

    China, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia 1
    Red-collared Woodpecker.

    China, Vietnam and Taiwan 4
    Chinese (Yellow-bellied) Prinia, Collared Finchbill, Dusky Fulvetta and Red-billed Starling.

    China and Taiwan 2
    Swinhoe’s (Striated) Prinia and Yellowish-bellied Bush-warbler.

    TAIWAN 30
    Taiwan Partridge, Taiwan Bamboo-partridge, Mikado Pheasant, Swinhoe’s Pheasant, Taiwan Barbet, Taiwan Blue Magpie, Chestnut-bellied (Varied) Tit, Yellow Tit, Taiwan Cupwing, Taiwan Grasshopper-warbler, Styan’s Bulbul, Taiwan Fulvetta, Taiwan Yuhina, Taiwan Scimitar-babbler, Black-necklaced Scimitar-babbler, Grey-cheeked Fulvetta, Taiwan Hwamei, Rufous-crowned Laughingthrush, Rusty Laughingthrush, White-whiskered Laughingthrush, White-eared Sibia, Taiwan (Steere’s) Liocichla, Taiwan Barwing, Taiwan Thrush, Small Vivid Niltava, Taiwan Shortwing, Collared Bush-robin, Taiwan Whistling-thrush, Flamecrest and Taiwan Rosefinch.

    Taiwan and Philippines 2
    Taiwan (Whistling) Green-pigeon (Batanes, north Philippines) and Lowland White-eye (northern Philippines and islands south of Taiwan).

    INDIAN SUBCONTINENT 180 (including Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan but not Andaman and Nicobar Islands (25))
    Widespread 42
    Sirkeer Malkoha, Lesser Florican, Red-naped Ibis, Yellow-wattled Lapwing, Indian Courser, Jungle Owlet, Indian Scops-owl, Rock Eagle-owl, Indian Grey Hornbill, Brown-headed Barbet, White-naped Woodpecker, Black-rumped Flameback, Indian Pygmy (Brown-capped) Woodpecker, Plum-headed Parakeet, Indian Pitta, Himalayan (White-browed) Shrike-babbler, Himalayan Black-lored Tit, Ashy-crowned Sparrow-lark, Black-throated Prinia, Grey-crowned Prinia, Ashy Prinia, Bristled Grassbird, Streak-throated Swallow, White-throated Tit, Rufous-throated Wren-babbler, Black-chinned Babbler, Rufous-vented Grass-babbler, Jungle Babbler, Indian Nuthatch, Brahminy Starling, Bank Myna, Pied Thrush, Tickell’s Thrush, Indian Robin, Tickell’s Blue-flycatcher, Kashmir Flycatcher, Blue-capped Rock-thrush, Brown Rockchat, Purple-rumped Sunbird, Black-breasted Weaver, White-browed Wagtail and Spectacled Finch.

    Photograph of Plum-headed Parakeet

    Plum-headed Parakeet in Corbett National Park by Lars Petersson, one of the most beautiful Asian parakeets which is endemic to the Indian Subcontinent.

    Indian Subcontinent and Afghanistan 9
    Brown-fronted Woodpecker, Himalayan Woodpecker, Black-headed Jay, Large-spotted (Kashmir) Nutcracker, Brooks’s Leaf-warbler, Tytler’s Leaf-warbler, White-cheeked Tit, White-cheeked Nuthatch and Black-and-yellow Grosbeak.

    Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan
    Afghan (Dead Sea) Sparrow.

    Pakistan, Iran and India 2
    Sind Woodpecker and Sind Sparrow.

    Pakistan and India 10
    Western Tragopan, Painted Sandgrouse, Great Indian Bustard, Indian Vulture, Rufous-tailed Lark, Indian Bushlark, Rufous-fronted Prinia, Large Grey Babbler, Common Babbler and Orange Bullfinch.

    INDIA 56 (+25 on Andaman and Nicobar Islands)
    Widespread/Central 17
    Red Spurfowl, Painted Spurfowl, Rock Bush-quail, Painted Bush-quail, Grey Junglefowl, Jerdon’s Courser (small range in the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh where currently known only from the Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary), Forest Owlet (small range, central-west), Mottled Wood-owl, White-bellied Minivet (recorded in Pakistan), White-spotted (Spot-breasted) Fantail, White-naped Tit, Indian Black-lored Tit, Sykes’s (Tawny) Lark, Indian Scimitar-babbler, Indian Spotted Creeper, White-browed Bushchat (extirpated from Afghanistan and Pakistan) and Green Avadavat.

    (Himalayan Quail is probably extinct)

    Northeast 7
    Manipur Bush-quail, Black-breasted Parrotbill, Rusty-throated Wren-babbler (Mishmi Hills), Naga (Long-tailed) Wren-babbler (Nagaland and North Manipur), Tawny-breasted Wren-babbler (Khasi Hills), Swamp Grass-babbler and Bugun Liocichla (Eaglenest area).

    Southwest (Western Ghats) 33
    Nilgiri Woodpigeon, Grey-fronted Green-pigeon (also Palkonda Hills in southeast), Nilgiri (Mountain) Imperial-pigeon, Malabar Grey Hornbill, Malabar Barbet, White-cheeked Barbet, Malabar Parakeet, Malabar Woodshrike (range extends north to near Rann of Kutch), White-bellied Treepie, Malabar Lark, Broad-tailed Grassbird, Grey-headed Bulbul, Flame-throated Bulbul, Yellow-throated Bulbul (range extends across whole of Deccan Plateau), Rufous Babbler, Black-winged (Jungle) Babbler, Wayanad (Wynadd) Laughingthrush, Palani (Grey-breasted) Laughingthrush (Chilappan), Ashambu (Grey-breasted) Laughingthrush (Chilappan), Banasura (Grey-breasted) Laughingthrush (Chilappan), Nilgiri Laughingthrush (Chillappan), Malabar (Chestnut-tailed) Starling, Nilgiri (Scaly) Thrush, Nilgiri Flycatcher, White-bellied Blue-flycatcher, Nilgiri Sholakili (Blue Robin), White-bellied Sholakili (Blue Robin), Malabar Whistling-thrush (range extends to central India), Black-and-orange Flycatcher, Nilgiri Flowerpecker, Crimson-backed Sunbird, Sahyadri (Vigors’s) Sunbird (also western Satpuras) and Nilgiri Pipit.

    Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India, between Myanmar and Sumatra) 3 (25 including single archipelago/island endemics, 29 including four species which also occur on a nearby island belonging to Myanmar)
    Andaman Woodpigeon, Andaman Cuckoo-dove and White-headed Starling.

    Andaman Islands 14
    Andaman Nightjar, Andaman Crake, Andaman Barn-owl (Masked-owl), Hume’s Boobook, Andaman Boobook, Andaman Scops-owl, Andaman Serpent-eagle, Narcondam Hornbill, Andaman Woodpecker, Andaman Cuckooshrike, Andaman Treepie, Andaman Bulbul, Andaman Shama and Andaman Flowerpecker.

    Nicobar Islands 8
    Nicobar Scrubfowl, Nicobar (Green) Imperial-pigeon, Nicobar Scops-owl (Great Nicobar), Great Nicobar Serpent-eagle (Great Nicobar), Nicobar Sparrowhawk, Nicobar Parakeet, Nicobar Bulbul (Nancowry Island Group) and Nicobar Jungle-flycatcher.

    Andaman Islands and Coco Islands (Myanmar) 3
    Andaman Teal, Andaman Coucal and Andaman Drongo.

    Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and Coco Islands (Myanmar) 1
    Andaman Green-pigeon.

    India and Nepal 4
    Nepal (Immaculate) Cupwing (Wren-babbler), Himalayan Grass-warbler (Bush-warbler), Slender-billed Babbler and Finn’s Weaver.

    India and Bangladesh 1
    Marsh Babbler.

    India, Bangladesh and Myanmar 1
    Cachar (Olive) Bulbul.

    India and Bhutan 1
    Bhutan (Streaked) Laughingthrush.

    India, Bhutan and Myanmar 1
    Spot-breasted Scimitar-babbler.

    India, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Myanmar 1
    White-bellied Heron.

    India and Myanmar 8
    Rufous-crowned (Black-throated) Prinia, Chin Hills Wren-babbler, Snowy-throated Babbler, Chestnut-backed Laughingthrush, Mount Victoria Babax, Yellow-throated Laughingthrush, Brown-capped Laughingthrush and Striped Laughingthrush.

    India and Sri Lanka 31
    Jungle Bush-quail, Painted Francolin, Sri Lanka Frogmouth, Jungle Nightjar, Jerdon’s Nightjar, Indian Swiftlet, Blue-faced Malkoha, Sri Lanka Bay-owl, Legge’s (Mountain) Hawk-eagle, Malabar Trogon, Malabar Pied Hornbill, Orange Minivet, Indian (Large) Cuckooshrike, Marshall’s (White-tailed) Iora, White-bellied Drongo, Indian Jungle Crow (range extends to Nepal), Jerdon’s Bushlark, Jungle Prinia (range extends to Nepal), Hill Swallow, Square-tailed (Black) Bulbul, Yellow-browed Bulbul, White-browed Bulbul, Tawny-bellied Babbler, Dark-fronted Babbler, Yellow-billed Babbler, Southern Hill Myna, Indian Blackbird, Jerdon’s Leafbird, Loten’s Sunbird, Black-throated Munia and Tricoloured (Chestnut) Munia.

    SRI LANKA 34
    Sri Lanka Spurfowl, Sri Lanka Junglefowl, Sri Lanka Woodpigeon, Sri Lanka Green-pigeon, Green-billed Coucal, Red-faced Malkoha, Chestnut-backed Owlet, Serendib Scops-owl, Sri Lanka Grey Hornbill, Sri Lanka (Crimson-fronted) Barbet, Yellow-fronted Barbet, Greater Sri Lanka (Crimson-backed) Flameback, Lesser (Red-backed) Flameback, Sri Lanka Hanging-parrot, Emerald-collared (Layard’s) Parakeet, Sri Lanka Woodshrike, Sri Lanka Drongo, Sri Lanka Blue Magpie, Sri Lanka (Bush-) Warbler, Sri Lanka Swallow, Black-capped Bulbul, Yellow-eared Bulbul, Sri Lanka White-eye, Sri Lanka Scimitar-babbler, Brown-capped Babbler, Orange-billed Babbler, Ashy-headed Laughingthrush, White-faced Starling, Sri Lanka Hill Myna, Sri Lanka Thrush, Spot-winged Thrush, Dull-blue Flycatcher, Sri Lanka Whistling-thrush and White-throated Flowerpecker.

    NEPAL 1
    Spiny Babbler.

    MYANMAR 13
    Burmese (Eurasian) Collared-dove, Irrawaddy (Black-and-red) Broadbill, Jerdon’s Minivet, Hooded Treepie, Burmese Bushlark, Burmese (Brown) Prinia, Grey-crowned (Puff-throated) Bulbul, Pale-eyed (Stripe-throated) Bulbul, Ayeyarwady (Streak-eared) Bulbul (also recorded in Thailand), Burmese (Black-browed) Tit, Naung Mung Wren-babbler, White-throated Babbler and White-browed Nuthatch.

    Myanmar and Thailand 5
    Tickell’s Brown (Rusty-cheeked) Hornbill, Gurney’s Pitta (probably only Myanmar), White-headed Bulbul, Burmese Yuhina and Western Spectacled Barwing.

    Myanmar, Thailand and Malay Peninsula 6
    White-fronted Scops-owl, Plain-pouched Hornbill, Bamboo Woodpecker, Rufous-bellied (Red-rumped) Swallow, Olive Bulbul and Chestnut-winged Babbler.

    Myanmar, Thailand, Malay Peninsula and Sumatra 4
    Malay Crested Fireback, Malay Brown Barbet, Malay Black Magpie and Buff-vented Bulbul.

    Siamese (Chestnut-headed) Partridge (southeast), Turquoise-throated (Blue-throated) Barbet (small range on Malay Peninsula) and Rufous Limestone-babbler (Limestone Wren-babbler) (south-central).

    Thailand and Cambodia 3
    White-tailed (Davison’s) Leaf-warbler, Cambodian (White-tailed) Blue Robin and Cambodian (Fire-breasted) Flowerpecker.

    Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam 2
    Coral-billed Ground-cuckoo and Mekong Wagtail.

    Photograph of Coral-billed Ground-cuckoo

    An extraordinary Coral-billed Ground-cuckoo crossing a road in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand by Mark Harper.

    Thailand and Malay Peninsula 2
    Malay Peacock-pheasant and Malay Laughingthrush.

    Thailand, Malay Peninsula and Sumatra 4
    Fire-tufted Barbet, Malay Banded Pitta, Cinereous Bulbul and Marbled Wren-babbler.

    VIETNAM 11
    Tonkin (Scaly-breasted) Partridge, Edward’s Pheasant, Annam (Brown) Prinia, Annam Grasshopper-warbler (Dalat Bush-warbler), Black-crowned Fulvetta (Langbian Plateau), White-throated (Long-billed) Wren-babbler (Fan Si Pan Mountains in northwest), Orange-breasted Laughingthrush (Langbian Plateau), Golden-winged (Chestnut-crowned) Laughingthrush (Mount Ngoc Linh and Mount Ngoc Boc), Collared Laughingthrush (Da Lat Plateau), Grey-crowned Crocias (Da Lat Plateau & Kon Tum area) and Vietnamese Greenfinch.

    Vietnam and Cambodia 4
    Orange-necked Partridge, Germain’s Peacock-pheasant, Dalat (White-browed) Shrike-babbler and Black-headed Parrotbill.

    Vietnam and Laos 8
    Necklaced Barbet, Indochinese Fulvetta, Sooty Babbler, Indochinese Wren-babbler (Short-tailed Scimitar-babbler), Vietnamese Cutia, Black-hooded Laughingthrush, Chestnut-eared Laughingthrush and Black-crowned Barwing.

    Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos 6
    Giant Ibis, Red-vented Barbet, Annam Barbet, Grey-crowned (Black-throated) Tit, Grey-faced Tit-babbler and White-cheeked Laughingthrush.

    Vietnam, Laos and Malay Peninsula 1
    Crested Argus.

    Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Kalimantan (Indonesia) 1
    White-shouldered Ibis.

    Chestnut-headed Partridge (Cardamom and Elephant Mountains), Cambodian Tailorbird and Cambodian Laughingthrush.

    LAOS 1
    Bare-faced Bulbul.


    Malay Peninsula 4
    Malay Partridge, Mountain Peacock-pheasant, Malay Whistling-thrush and Malay (Brown) Bullfinch.

    Borneo (north) 6
    Sabah (Chestnut-necklaced) Partridge, Dulit Partridge, Bornean (Cave) Swiftlet, Black-crowned Pitta, Friendly Grasshopper-warbler and Everett’s Thrush.

    Malay Peninsula and Borneo 1
    Brown-backed Flycatcher.

    Malay Peninsula, Borneo and Sumatra 1
    Grey-breasted Babbler.

    Malay Peninsula and Sumatra 6
    Chestnut-necklaced Partridge, Malay Crestless Fireback, Black-browed Barbet, Chestnut-capped Laughingthrush, Black Laughingthrush and Rufous-vented Niltava.

    Malaysia and Philippines 1
    Palawan Frogmouth (Banggi Island in Malaysia).

    (Six swiftlets, 11 hornbills, 11 kingfishers, eight woodpeckers, three pittas, four rhabdornises, 15 flowerpeckers and 13 sunbirds)

    Widespread 83
    Philippine Duck, Philippine Collared-dove, Philippine Green-pigeon, Pink-bellied Imperial-pigeon, Spotted Imperial-pigeon, Yellow-breasted Fruit-dove, Philippine Frogmouth, Philippine Nightjar, Pygmy Swiftlet, Grey-rumped Swiftlet, Ridgetop Swiftlet, Ameline Swiftlet, Philippine Swiftlet, Philippine Coucal, Philippine (Square-tailed) Drongo-cuckoo, Philippine Hawk-cuckoo, Philippine (Plain) Bush-hen, Philippine Swamphen, Bukidnon Woodcock, Chocolate Boobook, Philippine Eagle-owl, Philippine Honey-buzzard, Philippine Serpent-eagle, Philippine Eagle, North Philippine Hawk-eagle, South Philippine (Pinsker’s) Hawk-eagle, Philippine Trogon, Southern Rufous Hornbill, Rufous-crowned (Blue-throated) Bee-eater, North Philippine Dwarf-kingfisher, South Philippine Dwarf-kingfisher, Northern Indigo-banded Kingfisher, White-throated (Brown-breasted/Smyrna) Kingfisher, Northern Sooty Woodpecker, Southern Sooty Woodpecker, Philippine (Pygmy) Woodpecker, Philippine Falconet, Philippine Cockatoo, Guaiabero, Philippine Hanging-parrot (Colasisi), Montane (Luzon) Racquet-tail, Philippine Pitta, Azure-breasted (Steer’s) Pitta, Philippine Oriole, Yellow-bellied Whistler, Black-bibbed Cicadabird, Philippine Pied Fantail, Balicassiao, Short-tailed Drongo, Short-crested Monarch, Celestial Monarch, Northern Rufous Paradise-flycatcher, Philippine (Large-billed) Jungle Crow, Elegant Tit, White-fronted Tit, Philippine Bulbul, Yellow-wattled Bulbul, Philippine Leaf-warbler, Philippine Mountain (Sunda) Warbler, Yellowish White-eye, Sulphur-billed Nuthatch, Stripe-headed (Stripe-sided) Rhabdornis, Coleto, Philippine Magpie-robin, Philippine Shortwing, Little Slaty Flycatcher, Thicket (Bundok) Flycatcher, Philippine Fairy-bluebird, Philippine Leafbird, Olive-backed Flowerpecker, Striped (Thick-billed) Flowerpecker, Bicoloured Flowerpecker, Red-keeled Flowerpecker, Buzzing (White-bellied) Flowerpecker, Pygmy Flowerpecker, Fire-throated (Fire-breasted) Flowerpecker, Orange-tufted Spiderhunter, Naked-faced Spiderhunter, Grey-throated Sunbird, Magnificent Sunbird, Metallic-winged Sunbird, Handsome Sunbird and White-cheeked Bullfinch.

    North 6
    White-eared Brown-dove, Cream-bellied Fruit-dove, Rufous Coucal, Red-crested Malkoha, Scale-feathered Malkoha and Brown-banded Rail.

    Luzon 36
    Luzon Bleeding-heart, Flame-breasted Fruit-dove, Calayan Rail (island off north Luzon), Spotted Buttonquail, Luzon (Worcester’s) Buttonquail, Luzon Lowland (Philippine) Scops-owl, Luzon Highland Scops-owl, Northern Rufous Hornbill (also Marinduque), Luzon Hornbill, Luzon Flameback, Green Racquet-tail (also Marinduque), Whiskered Pitta, White-lored Oriole, Isabela Oriole, Blackish Cicadabird (also Marinduque and Catanduanes), Blue-headed Fantail (also Catanduanes), Green-backed Tailorbird, Grey-backed Tailorbird (also Catanduanes), Benguet Grasshopper-warbler, Cordillera Ground-warbler, Sierra Madre Ground-warbler, Bicol Ground-warbler (also Catanduanes), Philippine Bush-warbler, Chestnut-faced Babbler, Luzon Striped Babbler, Golden-crowned Babbler, Grand (Long-billed) Rhabdornis, White-browed Shama (also nearest islands), Blue-breasted Blue-flycatcher, Rufous-breasted Blue-flycatcher (also Catanduanes), White-browed (Rusty-flanked) Jungle-flycatcher, Furtive Flycatcher, Luzon Water-redstart, Yellow-crowned Flowerpecker, Luzon Sunbird and Flaming Sunbird (also Catanduanes).

    Luzon and Mindoro 3
    Green-backed Whistler, Northern Black-and-white Triller (also Semirara) and Ashy Thrush.

    Luzon, Mindoro and Mindanao 1
    Mountain Shrike.

    Mindoro 8
    Mindoro Bleeding-heart, Mindoro Imperial-pigeon, Black-hooded Coucal, Mindoro Boobook, Mindoro Hornbill, Mindoro Racquet-tail, Mindoro Bulbul and Scarlet-collared Flowerpecker (also possibly Panay and Negros).

    Luzon, Panay, Negros and Cebu 1
    Green-faced Parrotfinch.

    Luzon, Negros and Cebu 1
    Lemon-throated Leaf-warbler.

    Luzon, Negros and Samar 1
    Ashy-breasted Flycatcher.

    Luzon, Samar, Leyte and Bohol 1
    Black-crowned Babbler.

    Luzon and Mindanao 2
    Whitehead’s Swiftlet and Long-tailed Grasshopper-warbler.

    Tablas, Romblon, Cebu and Siquijor 1
    Streak-breasted Bulbul.

    North and Central 1
    Amethyst Brown-dove, Luzon Boobook and Spotted Kingfisher.

    Central 16
    Buff-eared Brown-dove, Visayan (Negros) Scops-owl, Visayan (Tarictic) Hornbill, Samar (Mindanao) Hornbill, Northern Silvery Kingfisher (Samar, Leyte and Bohol), Yellow-faced Flameback, Visayan Wattled Broadbill, Visayan Cuckooshrike, Visayan Fantail, Visayan Blue Fantail, Chestnut-crowned Tailorbird, Yellow-breasted Tailorbird (Samar, Leyte and Bohol), Visayan Miniature Babbler (Leyte Plumed-warbler), Visayan Bulbul, Visayan Pygmy Babbler (Samar and Leyte) and Bohol Sunbird (Bohol only).

    Tablas 1
    Tablas Fantail and Tablas Drongo.

    Tablas and Sibuyan 1
    Romblon Boobook.

    Panay 1
    Panay Striped Babbler.

    Panay and Negros 10
    Negros Bleeding-heart, Grey-breasted Brown-dove, Rufous-headed (Writhe-billed) Hornbill, White-winged Cicadabird (also Panay), Flame-templed Babbler, Visayan Rhabdornis, Visayan Shama (also Ticao and Masbate), White-throated (Negros) Jungle-flycatcher (also Guimaras), Black-belted Flowerpecker (also Guimaras) and Maroon-naped Sunbird (also Guimaras).

    Panay, Negros and Cebu 1
    Southern Indigo-banded Kingfisher.

    Negros 2
    Negros Fruit-dove (Mt Canlaon) and Negros Striped Babbler.

    Cebu 4
    Cebu (Amethyst) Brown-dove, Cebu Boobook, Black Shama and Cebu Flowerpecker.

    Central and South 12
    Short-billed Brown-dove, Philippine Spinetail, Black-faced Coucal, Giant Scops-owl, Mindanao Lowland (Everett’s) Scops-owl, Dimorphic Kingfisher, Rufous-lored (Winchell’s) Kingfisher, Buff-spotted Flameback, Blue-crowned Racquet-tail, Yellowish Bulbul, Brown Tit-babbler and Striated Wren-babbler.

    South 3
    Mindanao Boobook, Writhed Hornbill and Rufous-fronted Tailorbird.

    Mindanao 33
    Dark-eared (Mindanao) Brown-dove (also Basilan), Mindanao Highland Scops-owl, Mindanao Hornbill, Southern Silvery Kingfisher (also Basilan, Dinagat and Siargao), Blue-capped (Hombron’s) Kingfisher, Mindanao Lorikeet, Mindanao Racquet-tail, Mindanao Wattled Broadbill, McGregor’s Cuckooshrike, Black-and-cinnamon Fantail, Mindanao Blue Fantail (also Basilan), Mindanao Miniature Babbler (Plumed-warbler), Black-headed (White-browed) Tailorbird (also Dinagat and Siargao), White-eared Tailorbird (also Basilan), Zamboanga Bulbul (also Basilan), Rufous-headed Tailorbird, Mindanao White-eye (Goodfellow's Heleia), Rusty-crowned Babbler (also Basilan and Dinagat), Mindanao Pygmy Babbler, Bagobo Babbler, Apo Myna, Slaty-backed (Mindanao) Jungle-flycatcher, Cryptic Flycatcher, Whiskered Flowerpecker, Flame-crowned Flowerpecker, Olive-capped Flowerpecker, Lina’s Sunbird, Grey-hooded Sunbird, Apo Sunbird, Tboli (Apo) Sunbird, Red-eared Parrotfinch, Cinnamon Ibon and Mindanao (Mountain) Serin.

    Camiguin (island off north Mindanao) 3
    Camiguin Boobook, Camiguin Hanging-parrot and Camiguin Bulbul.

    Mindanao, Samar and Leyte 3
    Mindanao Bleeding-heart, Southern Black-and-white Triller and Stripe-breasted Rhabdornis (also Biliran).

    Mindanao and Sulu Archipelago 1
    Orange-lined Sunbird.

    Sulu Archipelago 6
    Tawitani Brown-dove, Sulu Boobook, Sulu Hornbill (Tawitani at least), Sulu (Pygmy) Woodpecker, Sulu (Blue-winged) Racquet-tail (possibly still exists only on Tawitani) and Sulu Bulbul.

    (Sulu Bleeding-heart (Tawitani Island) is known only from two specimens collected in 1891)

    Palawan and area including Balabac and Calamian Islands 23
    Palawan Peacock-pheasant, Palawan Scops-owl, Palawan Hornbill, Red-headed Flameback, Spot-throated Flameback, Blue-headed Racquet-tail, Blue Paradise-flycatcher, Palawan Tit, Palawan (Grey-throated) Bulbul, Sulphur-bellied Bulbul, Ashy-fronted (Olive-winged) Bulbul, Palawan Striped Babbler, Melodious Babbler, Ashy-headed Babbler, Falcated Wren-babbler, White-vented Shama, Palawan Blue-flycatcher, Palawan Flycatcher, Palawan Fairy-bluebird, Yellow-throated Leafbird, Palawan Flowerpecker, Palawan (Pale) Spiderhunter and Lovely Sunbird.

    Photograph of Palawan Peacock-pheasant

    Palawan Peacock-pheasant in St Paul's National Park on the island of Palawan by Francesco Veronesi, one of the mostly very localized eight peacock-pheasants in the world.

    Philippines and Indonesia 5
    Grey Imperial-pigeon (Sulu Archipelago (Philippines), Miangas (Sulawesi, Indonesia) and Talaud Islands (Indonesia)), Blue-naped Parrot (throughout Philippines, satellite islands of north Borneo, and Talaud (Indonesia)), Southern Rufous Paradise-flycatcher (central and southern Philippines, and Talaud), Everett’s White-eye (central and southern Philippines, and Talaud) and Purple-throated Sunbird (most of Philippines and Maratua Island, off east Borneo).

    Philippines and Borneo 2
    Mantanani Scops-owl (small islands) and White-vented Whistler (Si Amil, Pandanan and Sipadan Islands off northeast Borneo, west-central and southern Philippines).

    BORNEO 64
    (Four partridges, two firebacks, four barbets, four pittas, two broadbills, Bristlehead, three wren-babblers and Fruithunter)
    Bornean (Red-breasted) Partridge, Sabah (Chestnut-necklaced) Partridge, Dulit Partridge, Crimson-headed Partridge, Bornean Peacock-pheasant, Bornean Crestless Fireback, Bornean Crested Fireback (also Bangka Island off southeast Sumatra), Bulwer’s Pheasant, Dulit Frogmouth, Bornean (Short-tailed) Frogmouth, Bornean (Cave) Swiftlet, Bornean Ground-cuckoo, Kinabalu (Mountain) Serpent-eagle, Whitehead’s Trogon, Black-faced (Banded) Kingfisher (also Bangka Island off southeast Sumatra), Bornean Brown Barbet, Bornean Barbet, Golden-naped Barbet, Mountain Barbet, White-fronted Falconet, Blue-banded Pitta, Black-crowned (Garnet) Pitta, Bornean Banded Pitta, Blue-headed Pitta, Hose’s Broadbill, Whitehead’s Broadbill, Black Oriole, Bornean Whistler, Bornean Bristlehead, Bornean Black Magpie, Bornean Treepie, Bornean Green Magpie, Friendly Grasshopper-warbler (Kinabalu Friendly (Bush) Warbler), Chestnut-vented (Ochraceous) Bulbul, Charlotte’s (Buff-vented) Bulbul, Green-winged Bulbul, Bornean (Black-capped) Bulbul, Pale-faced (Flavescent) Bulbul, Cream-eyed Bulbul, Bornean Stubtail, Chestnut-crested Yuhina, Pygmy White-eye, Mountain Black-eye, Grey-hooded (Chestnut-winged) Babbler, Black-throated Wren-babbler, Mountain Wren-babbler, Bornean Wren-babbler, Chestnut-hooded Laughingthrush, Bare-headed (Black) Laughingthrush, Everett’s Thrush, Fruithunter, White-crowned Shama, Bornean Blue-flycatcher, Eye-browed Jungle-flycatcher, Bornean Shortwing, Bornean (White-crowned) Forktail, Bornean Whistling-thrush, Bornean Leafbird, Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker (also recorded in North Natuna Islands between Borneo and Malaya), Spectacled Flowerpecker, Black-sided Flowerpecker, Whitehead’s Spiderhunter, Bornean (Streaky-breasted) Spiderhunter and Dusky Munia (also known from Cagayan Sulu in Philippines).

    (Black-browed (Wren-) Babbler, known only from a single specimen presumably collected between 1843 and 1848, was rediscovered in October 2020 in Kalimantan, southeast Borneo)

    Borneo and Sumatra 10
    Bonaparte’s Nightjar, Sunda (Collared) Owlet, Rajah Scops-owl, Hook-billed Bulbul, Blue-wattled Bulbul, Black-capped White-eye, Sunda Laughingthrush, Rufous-vented (Indigo) Flycatcher, Large-billed (Sunda) Blue-flycatcher and Scarlet-headed Flowerpecker (Kalimantan in Borneo).

    Borneo, Sumatra and Java 1
    Scarlet-headed Flowerpecker.

    Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi 1
    Black-backed Swamphen.

    Borneo and Java 3
    Javan White-eye, Temminck’s Babbler and Javan (Hill) Blue-flycatcher.

    SUMATRA 42
    Mainland 30
    Tan-breasted (Roll’s) Partridge, Sumatran Partridge, Red-billed Partridge, Bronze-tailed Peacock-pheasant, Salvadori’s Pheasant, Short-tailed (Sumatran) Frogmouth, Sumatran Ground-cuckoo, Sumatran Trogon, Sumatran (Black-naped) Woodpecker, Graceful Pitta, Schneider’s Pitta, Sumatran Drongo, Sumatran Treepie, Crimson-striped Bulbul, Sumatran (Sunda) Bulbul, Spot-necked Bulbul, Aceh Bulbul, Sumatran (Sunda) Warbler, Sumatran Babbler, Rusty-breasted Wren-babbler, Sumatran Wren-babbler, Sumatran Laughingthrush, Sumatran Mesia, Sumatran Cochoa, Sumatran Shortwing, Shiny Whistling-thrush, Sumatran Whistling-thrush, Sumatran Leafbird, Blue-masked Leafbird and Sumatran Flowerpecker.

    (There have been no recent records of Ruck’s Blue (Jungle)-flycatcher known only from four specimens, two of which were collected near Medan in 1917-1918)

    Offshore islands 12

    Widespread off west coast 2
    Silvery Pigeon and Barusan Cuckoo-dove.

    Simeulue Islands 2 (accessible from Medan)
    Simeulue Scops-owl and Simeulue (Blue-rumped) Parrot.

    Nias Islands 1 (accessible from Medan)
    Nias Hill Myna (Nias and Banyak).

    Mentawai Islands 2 (accessible from Padang)
    Mentawai Malkoha and Mentawai Scops-owl.

    Enggano Islands 5 (accessible from Bengkulu)
    Enggano Imperial-pigeon, Enggano Cuckoo-dove, Enggano Scops-owl, Enggano (Chestnut-capped) Thrush and Enggano Hill Myna.

    Sumatra and Java 6
    Sumatran (Green-spectacled) Green-pigeon, Salvadori’s Nightjar, Javan Woodcock, Sunda Minivet, Sunda Blue Robin and Sunda Forktail.

    Sumatra, Java and Bali 5
    Pink-headed Fruit-dove, Bar-winged Prinia, Ruby-throated Bulbul, Orange-spotted Bulbul and Sangkar White-eye.

    Sumatra, Java, Bali and Lombok (Lesser Sundas) 2
    Cave Swiftlet and Javan Munia.

    Sumatra, Java and Lesser Sundas (including Timor) 2
    Javan Plover and Cerulean (Small Blue) Kingfisher.

    Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi 1
    Mountain Serin.

    Sumatra, Java and Malay Peninsula 1
    Waterfall Swift.

    JAVA 40
    White-faced (Grey-breasted) Partridge (east), Chestnut-bellied Partridge, Javan Frogmouth, Volcano Swiftlet, Javan Coucal, Javan Scops-owl, Javan Hawk-eagle, Javan Trogon, Javan Blue-banded Kingfisher, Brown-throated Barbet, Red-crested (Grey-and-buff) Woodpecker, White-rumped (Pygmy) Woodpecker, Javan Yellownape, Javan (Banded) Broadbill, Javan (Black-and-crimson) Oriole, Pied (White-browed) Shrike-babbler, Trilling (Chestnut-fronted) Shrike-babbler, White-bellied Fantail, Rufous-tailed Fantail, Javan Green Magpie, Javan (Sunda) Bulbul, Javan (Sunda) Warbler, Javan Tesia, Pygmy Tit, White-breasted Babbler, White-bibbed Babbler, Grey-cheeked Tit-babbler, Rufous-browed Babbler, Javan Fulvetta, Rufous-fronted Laughingthrush, Spotted Crocias, Javan Pied Starling (central), Black-winged Myna, Grey-backed (Black-winged) Myna, Javan Cochoa, Indigo Flycatcher, Javan Shortwing, Javan Leafbird, Javan Sunbird and White-flanked Sunbird.

    Java and Bali 17
    Javan Owlet, Javan Kingfisher, Yellow-eared (Little) Barbet, Black-banded Barbet, Flame-fronted Barbet, Javan Flameback (east Java, also Kangean Island north of Bali), Yellow-throated Hanging-parrot, Javan Banded Pitta, Javan Grasshopper-warbler (east Java), Brown-cheeked Bulbul, Javan Grey-throated White-eye, Crescent-chested Babbler, Javan Myna, Javan Whistling-thrush, Streaky-breasted Spiderhunter, White-capped Munia and Java Sparrow.

    Java, Bali and Lesser Sundas 7
    Green Junglefowl, Sunda (Island) Collared-dove, Ruddy Cuckoo-dove, Dark-backed Imperial-pigeon, Rusty-breasted Whistler (east Java), Olive-backed Tailorbird and Blood-breasted Flowerpecker.

    Java, Lesser Sundas and Sulawesi 1
    White-shouldered Triller.

    Java and Sulawesi (and satellites) 1
    Grey-cheeked Green-pigeon.

    Kangean, off northeast Java 1
    Kangean Tit-babbler.

    BALI 2
    Bali Myna and Grey-rumped (Black-winged) Myna.

    LESSER SUNDAS (NUSA TENGGARA) 95 (including Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba, Alor, Wetar and Timor)
    Widespread 27
    Flores Green-pigeon, Black-backed Fruit-dove, Mees’s Nightjar, Tenggara Swiftlet, Wallace’s Scops-owl, Flores Hawk-eagle, Lesser Sundas Goshawk, White-rumped Kingfisher, Scarlet-breasted (Sunset) Lorikeet (also Flores Sea islands), Marigold Lorikeet, Olive-headed Lorikeet, Scaly-crowned Honeyeater, Indonesian Honeyeater, Bare-throated Whistler, Sumba Cicadabird, Banda Fantail, Brown-capped Fantail, Nusa Tenggara Paradise-flycatcher, Flores Crow, Russet-capped Tesia, Yellow-spectacled White-eye, Tenggara Hill Myna, Chestnut-backed Thrush, Black-fronted Flowerpecker, Red-chested Flowerpecker, Flame-breasted Sunbird and Timor Zebra Finch.

    Lesser Sundas and Tanimbar Islands 5
    Drab (Glossy) Swiftlet, Cinnamon-banded Kingfisher, Blue-streaked Lory (only small islands of east Lesser Sundas), Five-coloured Munia and Tricoloured Parrotfinch.

    Lesser Sundas, Tanimbar Islands and Kai Islands 1
    Wallacean Cuckooshrike.

    Lesser Sundas, Tanimbar Islands, Moluccas, and Banggai and Sulu Islands 1
    Yellow-throated (Moluccan) Whistler.

    Lesser Sundas and South Moluccas 3
    Barred Dove, Elegant Pitta and Wallacean Drongo.

    Lesser Sundas and Moluccas 2
    Moluccan Scops-owl and Black-faced Munia.

    Lesser Sundas and Sulawesi 1
    Pale-headed Munia.

    Lesser Sundas and other small Indonesian islands 1
    Pink-headed Imperial-pigeon.

    Lombok 1
    Rinjani Scops-owl.

    Sumbawa and Flores 6
    Flores Minivet, Cream-browed White-eye, Crested (Dark-crowned) White-eye, Thick-billed (Flores) White-eye, Russet-backed (Flores) Jungle-flycatcher and Golden-rumped Flowerpecker.

    Photograph of Flores Minivet

    The lovely Flores Minivet at Ranamese Lake on Flores by Dubi Shapiro. This species occurs only on the islands of Flores and Sumbawa in the Lesser Sundas islands of Indonesia.

    Flores 6
    Flores Scops-owl, Flores (Leaf) Lorikeet, Flores (Wallace’s) Hanging-parrot, Flores Monarch, Flores Crow and Flores Shortwing.

    Flores, Timor and Atauro 1
    Timor Leaf-warbler.

    Sumba 13
    Sumba Green-pigeon, Red-naped Fruit-dove, Sumba Buttonquail, Sumba Boobook, Least Boobook, Sumba Hornbill, Sumba Eclectus, Sumba Myzomela, Sumba Brown Flycatcher, Sumba Jungle-flycatcher, Sumba Flycatcher, Sumba Flowerpecker and Apricot-breasted Sunbird.

    Alor 2
    Alor Boobook (also Pantar) and Alor Myzomela.

    Alor and Timor 1
    Timor Grasshopper-warbler.

    Timor 9
    Timor (Southern) Boobook, Flame-eared (Yellow-eared) Honeyeater, Timor Friarbird, Black-breasted Myzomela, Streak-breasted Honeyeater (also adjacent Semau), Buff-banded Bushbird, Spot-breasted (Timor) White-eye, Black-banded Flycatcher and Timor (Blood-breasted) Flowerpecker.

    Timor and Wetar 4
    Black (Slaty) Cuckoo-dove, Wetar Ground-dove, Timor Imperial-pigeon and Iris Lorikeet.

    Timor, Wetar and Atauro 1
    Fawn-breasted Whistler.

    Timor, Wetar and nearby islands 3
    Plain Gerygone, Timor Fantail and Orange-banded Thrush.

    Timor, Wetar and eastern Lesser Sundas 1
    Timor (Dusky) Cuckoo-dove.

    Timor, Wetar and Rote 3
    Jonquil (Olive-shouldered) Parrot, Timor Stubtail (and other islands) and Timor Blue-flycatcher.

    Wetar 5
    Wetar (Moluccan) Scops-owl, Black-necklaced (-chested) Honeyeater, Crimson-hooded Myzomela, Wetar Figbird and Wetar Oriole (also Atauro).

    Timor and Rote 3
    Timor Green-pigeon, Timor (Green) Figbird and Timor Sparrow.

    Timor, Rote and Semau 2
    Timor Oriole and White-bellied Bushchat.

    Rote 4
    Rote Boobook, Rote Myzomela, Rote Fantail and Rote Leaf-warbler.

    Kisar, Leti and Moa 1
    Grey Friarbird.

    Romang, Leti and Moa 1
    Banda Sea Whistler.

    Damar 1
    Damar Flycatcher.

    Tanimbar Islands and nearby islands 5
    Banda Myzomela, Wallacean Whistler, Cinnamon-tailed Fantail (Babar), Black-bibbed Monarch (Damar and Babar) and Violet-hooded (Metallic) Starling (Damar).

    Tanimbar Scrubfowl, Tanimbar Cuckoo-dove, Tanimbar Boobook, Tanimbar Corella, Tanimbar Eclectus, Tanimbar Oriole, Tanimbar Triller, Long-tailed Fantail, Tanimbar (Loetoe) Monarch, Tanimbar (Golden-bellied) Flyrobin, Tanimbar Bush-warbler, Tanimbar Starling, Fawn-breasted Thrush, Slaty-backed Thrush and Tanimbar Flycatcher.

    Tanimbar and Kai Islands 2
    Pied Bronze-cuckoo and Tanimbar Friarbird.

    Tanimbar and Kai Islands, and nearby islands 3
    Rufous-sided Gerygone (also Selayar Island off south Sulawesi), Kai Cicadabird and Pink-breasted Flowerpecker.

    Kai Islands 4
    Kai Coucal, Kai Fantail (also Watubela and Tayandu), Pearl-bellied (Great Kai) White-eye (Kai Besar) and Golden-bellied (Little Kai) White-eye (Kai Cecil and Dulah).

    SULAWESI 86 (including satellite islands such as Togian Islands)
    (Four fruit-doves, six kingfishers, six starlings and mynas, and two hylocitreas)
    Maleo, White-faced Cuckoo-dove, Sulawesi Ground-dove, Grey-headed Imperial-pigeon, Maroon-chinned Fruit-dove, Red-eared Fruit-dove, Lompobattang Fruit-dove (southwest), Western Superb Fruit-dove, Sombre Pigeon, Heinrich’s (Diabolical/Satanic) Nightjar, Bay Coucal, Yellow-billed Malkoha, Black-billed Koel, Sulawesi Cuckoo, Snoring Rail, Blue-faced Rail, Isabelline Bush-hen, Sulawesi Woodcock, Minahasa Masked-owl, Sulawesi Masked-owl, Ochre-bellied Boobook, Cinnabar Boobook, Speckled Boobook, Sulawesi Scops-owl, Sulawesi Honey-buzzard, Sulawesi Goshawk, Spot-tailed Goshawk, Dwarf (Small) Sparrowhawk, Sulawesi Hornbill, Knobbed Hornbill, Purple-bearded Bee-eater, Purple-winged Roller, Sulawesi Dwarf-kingfisher, Blue-headed (Green-backed) Kingfisher, Black-headed Kingfisher, Scaly-breasted Kingfisher, Plain-backed Kingfisher, Sulawesi Lilac (Lilac-cheeked) Kingfisher, Ashy Woodpecker, Sulawesi (Pygmy) Woodpecker, Ornate Lorikeet, Mustard-capped (Yellow-and-green) Lorikeet, Sulawesi Hanging-parrot, Pygmy Hanging-parrot, Golden-mantled Racquet-tail, Yellowish-breasted Racquet-tail (also Togian Islands), Sulawesi Pitta, Dark-eared Myza, White-eared Myza, Maroon-backed Whistler, Sulphur-bellied Whistler, Cerulean Cuckooshrike, Pied Cuckooshrike, White-rumped Cuckooshrike, Pygmy Cuckooshrike, Sulawesi (Rusty-bellied) Fantail, Sulawesi Drongo, Piping Crow, Malia, Sulawesi Leaf-warbler, Streak-headed White-eye, Pale-bellied (Sulawesi) White-eye (southeast), Black-ringed White-eye (southwest), Sulawesi Babbler, Pale-bellied Myna (south), Sulawesi (Crested) Myna, Northern White-necked Myna, Southern White-necked Myna, Fiery-browed Starling, Grosbeak (Finch-billed) Starling, Geomalia, Red-backed (Rusty-backed) Thrush, Sulawesi Thrush, Sulawesi Streaked (Brown) Flycatcher, Sulawesi Blue-flycatcher, Blue-fronted Flycatcher, Matinan Flycatcher, Minahasa (Great) Shortwing, Great Shortwing, Rufous-throated Flycatcher, Lompobattang Flycatcher (south), Northern Hylocitrea, Southern Hylocitrea, Yellow-sided Flowerpecker, Crimson-crowned Flowerpecker and Grey-sided Flowerpecker.

    Sulawesi, Sangihe and Talaud (Islands off north Sulawesi) 1
    Sulawesi Cicadabird.

    Sangihe Scops-owl, Sangihe Dwarf-kingfisher, Sangihe Hanging-parrot, Sangihe Pitta, Sangihe Whistler, Cerulean Paradise-flycatcher, Sangihe Golden Bulbul, Sangihe White-eye and Elegant Sunbird.

    Sangihe and Siau Islands 3
    Sangihe Lilac Kingfisher, Siau Scops-owl and Siau Pitta.

    Talaud 5
    Talaud Rail, Talaud Bush-hen, Talaud Kingfisher, Red-and-blue Lory and Talaud Pitta.

    Small Islands of south Sulawesi 6
    Flores Sea Cuckoo-dove, Blue-tailed (Elegant) Imperial-pigeon (also elsewhere in Wallacea), Selayar Whistler (Selayar), White-tipped Monarch (Selayar and Tanahjampea), Wakatobi White-eye (Takangbesi) and Tanahjampea Blue-flycatcher (Tanahjampea and Kalao).

    Sulawesi to West Papuan Islands 1
    Sultan’s Cuckoo-dove.

    Sulawesi and North Moluccas (Maluku) 1
    Moluccan Drongo-cuckoo.

    Sulawesi and South Moluccas (Maluku) 1
    Chestnut-backed Grasshopper-warbler.

    Togian Islands 3
    Togian Boobook, Togian Golden Bulbul and Togian White-eye.

    Sulawesi, Banggai Islands and Sula Islands 1
    Black-crowned White-eye.

    Sulawesi (including satellite islands) and Sula Islands 11
    White-bellied Imperial-pigeon, White (Silver-tipped) Imperial-pigeon, Sulawesi Nightjar, Sulawesi Swiftlet, Sulawesi Serpent-eagle, Sulawesi Hawk-eagle, Vinous-breasted Sparrowhawk, Black-billed Kingfisher, White-rumped Triller, Ivory-backed Woodswallow and Pale-blue Monarch.

    Sulawesi, Sula and Obi 1
    Sulawesi Myzomela.

    Sula and Banggai Islands 7 (19 including single-island endemics)
    Sula Scrubfowl, Sula Cuckoo-dove, Sula Hanging-parrot, Sula Pitta, Slaty Cuckooshrike, Helmeted Myna and Red-and-black Thrush.

    Sula Islands 10
    Sula Fruit-dove, Taliabu Masked-owl, Sula Scops-owl, Sula Dwarf-kingfisher, Yellow-and-green Lorikeet, Sula Cicadabird, Taliabu Fantail, Sula Golden Bulbul, Bare-eyed Myna and Sula Jungle-flycatcher.

    Banggai Islands 5
    Banggai Fruit-dove, Banggai Scops-owl, Banggai Crow, Banggai Golden Bulbul and Banggai Jungle-flycatcher.

    Banggai Islands and Obi 1
    Obi Cicadabird.

    Sula and Banggai Islands, and Moluccas (Maluku) 1
    Moluccan Starling.

    Moluccan (Brush) Cuckoo, Rufous-necked Sparrowhawk, Moluccan Eclectus, Moluccan Cuckooshrike and Moluccan Flycatcher.

    Moluccas and Misool (West Papua) 1
    Moluccan Scrubfowl.

    Moluccas and Kofiau (West Papua) 1
    Spectacled (Moluccan) Imperial-pigeon.

    Moluccas and West Papuan Islands 4
    Dusky Scrubfowl, Violet-necked Lory, Moluccan King-parrot and Island Whistler.

    Moluccas and New Guinea 3
    Gurney’s Eagle, Pygmy Eagle and Common Paradise-kingfisher.

    NORTH MOLUCCAS (Morotai, Halmahera, Bacan and Obi) Endemics 46
    (Four fruit-doves, three kingfishers, three pittas, two paradise-crows and Standardwing Bird-of-paradise)
    Widespread 29
    Cinnamon-bellied Imperial-pigeon, Scarlet-breasted Fruit-dove, Grey-headed Fruit-dove, Blue-capped Fruit-dove, Moluccan Owlet-nightjar, Halmahera Swiftlet, Goliath Coucal, Halmahera Boobook, Moluccan Goshawk, Azure Dollarbird (Purple Roller), North Moluccan Dwarf-kingfisher, Blue-and-white Kingfisher, Sombre Kingfisher, White Cockatoo, Chattering Lory, Moluccan Hanging-parrot, North Moluccan Pitta, Ivory-breasted Pitta, White-streaked Friarbird, Moluccan Myzomela, Black-chinned Whistler, Moluccan Cicadabird, Rufous-bellied Triller, Moluccan Monarch, Long-billed Crow, Halmahera Paradise-crow, Wallace's Standardwing, Cream-throated White-eye and Halmahera Flowerpecker.

    Morotai 3
    Morotai Pitta, Dusky Friarbird and Morotai White-eye.

    Halmahera 4
    Drummer (Invisible) Rail, Halmahera Oriole, Halmahera Cicadabird and Halmahera Golden Bulbul.

    Bacan 1
    Bacan Myzomela.

    Bacan and Obi 1
    Moluccan (Obi) Woodcock.

    Obi 7
    Rusty (Cinnamon-bellied) Imperial-pigeon, Carunculated Fruit-dove, Obi Myzomela, Cinnamon-breasted (Rufous) Whistler, Obi (Northern) Fantail (also Bisa), Obi Paradise-crow and Obi Golden Bulbul (and potentially Obi (Grey-throated/Variable) Goshawk, Obi Spangled Drongo, Obi (Moluccan) Monarch, Obi (Cream-throated) White-eye and Obi (Common) Cicadabird.

    Ivory-breasted Pitta

    Ivory-breasted Pitta at Foli on Halmahera by David Beadle. This beauty occurs only on the islands of Halmahera, Bacan and Obi with the Morotai race now considered to be a full species.

    Halmahera and Buru 1
    White-naped Monarch.

    Obi, Buru, Seram and Boano 1
    Pale Cicadabird.

    CENTRAL MOLUCCAS (Buru, Seram etc.) 49
    Widespread 4
    Red Lory, South Moluccan Pitta, Violet Crow and Cinnamon-chested Flycatcher.

    Buru 20
    Buru Green-pigeon, Buru Mountain-pigeon, Buru Boobook, Buru Dwarf-kingfisher, Blue-fronted Lorikeet, Buru Racquet-tail, Black-lored Parrot, Buru Honeyeater, Black-faced (Buru) Friarbird, Buru Oriole, Buru Cuckooshrike, Buru Fantail, Tawny-backed Fantail, Black-tipped Monarch, Buru Golden Bulbul, Buru White-eye, Buru Thrush, Streaky-breasted Jungle-flycatcher, Buru Flowerpecker and Madanga (formerly Rufous-throated Dark-eye, now placed with the pipits although it lives in montane elfin forest and climbs up and down tree trunks).

    Buru and Seram 2
    Forsten’s Scrubfowl and Wakolo Myzomela.

    Buru, Seram, Ambon and Boano 1
    Seram Swiftlet.

    Seram 17
    Seram Imperial-pigeon, Seram Mountain-pigeon, Seram Masked-owl, Seram (Hantu) Boobook, Seram Dwarf-kingfisher, Purple-naped Lory (also possibly on Ambon), Blue-eared Lory, Seram Honeyeater, Seram Friarbird, Seram Oriole, Streaky-breasted Fantail, Seram Golden Bulbul, Grey-hooded White-eye, Bicoloured (Rufescent) White-eye, Seram White-eye, Long-crested Myna and Seram Thrush.

    Seram and Ambon 3
    Salmon-crested Cockatoo, Seram Fantail and Ambon White-eye.

    Seram, Ambon and Boano 1
    Drab Myzomela.

    Boano 1
    Black-chinned Monarch.

    Christmas Imperial-pigeon, Christmas (Glossy) Swiftlet, Christmas Boobook and Christmas White-eye.

    (Christmas Frigatebird is an endemic breeding bird that ranges widely to Southeast Asia, and Abbott’s Booby is also a breeding endemic (mainly June to March), ranging at sea around the island, north to Java)

    White-naped Pheasant-pigeon and Aru Flowerpecker (Mistletoebird).

    Aru Islands, West Papuan Islands and north coast of mainland West Papua 1
    Brown-headed Crow.

    (Three paradise-kingfishers (on islands) and seven birds-of-paradise)
    Widespread 34
    Red-billed Brush-turkey, Snow Mountain Quail, Western Crowned-pigeon, Western Ornate Fruit-dove, White-striped Forest-rail, Snow Mountain Tiger-parrot, Papuan Lorikeet (Vogelkop), Black Lory, Large Fig-parrot, Salvadori’s Fig-parrot, Blue-fronted (Orange-breasted) Fig-parrot, White-eared Catbird, Arfak (Black-eared) Catbird, Vogelkop Bowerbird, Brass’s Friarbird, Rufous-sided Honeyeater, Arfak Honeyeater, Orange-cheeked Honeyeater, Vogelkop Honeyeater, Vogelkop Scrubwren, Western Crested Berrypecker, Vogelkop Whistler, Baliem Whistler (northern slopes of Snow Mountains), Mamberamo (Little) Shrike-thrush, Western Parotia, Vogelkop Lophornia (Superb Bop), Long-tailed Paradigalla (Arfak Mountains), Arfak Astrapia (Arfak and Tamrau Mountains), Snow Mountain Robin (Oranje Mountains), Ashy Robin, Smoky Robin, Olive-crowned Flowerpecker, Grey-banded Mannikin/Munia (Arfak Mountains) and Black-breasted Mannikin/Munia.

    Foja Mountains 3
    Golden-fronted Bowerbird, Foja Honeyeater and Bronze Parotia.

    West Papuan Islands 6
    Waigeo (Bruijn’s) Brush-turkey (Waigeo), Spice Imperial-pigeon (widespread on mainly small islands. Also an old record from Widi Island off Halmahera), Waigeo (Raja Ampat) Pitohui (Waigeo, Gemien, Batanta and Sagewin), Waigeo (Little) Shrike-thrush (Waigeo), Wilson’s Bird-of-paradise (Waigeo and Batanta) and Red Bird-of-paradise (Waigeo and Batanta).

    Kofiau 2
    Kofiau Paradise-kingfisher and Kofiau Monarch.

    Geelvink (Bay) Islands 23
    Biak, Numfor and other islands 7
    Biak Scrubfowl, Geelvink Imperial-pigeon, Geelvink Fruit-dove, Black-winged Lory, Geelvink Pygmy-parrot, Geelvink Cicadabird and Long-tailed Starling.

    Biak 14
    Biak Coucal, Biak Scops-owl, Biak Paradise-kingfisher, Biak Lorikeet, Biak Hooded Pitta, Red-brown Myzomela, Biak Gerygone, Biak Whistler, Biak Triller, Biak Fantail, Biak Flycatcher, Biak Monarch, Biak Leaf-warbler and Biak White-eye.

    Numfor 2
    Numfor Paradise-kingfisher (Numfor only) and Numfor (Island) Leaf-warbler.

    Western Crested Berrypecker

    A fantastic image of a Western Crested Berrypecker at Lake Habbema in West Papua by David Beadle. Recently split into Western and Eastern the ‘Crested Berrypecker’ is a large and confiding beauty that inhabits the high montane forests and shrublands on the island of New Guinea.


    NEW GUINEA 497 (including Mainland, and West Papuan and Geelvink (Bay) Islands (the 293 listed below), plus West Papua Endemics (68), Mainland Papua New Guinea Endemics (33), Mainland and offshore Papua New Guinea Endemics (6), and Papua New Guinea Offshore Islands (17), Bismarck Archipelago (68) and Bougainville (12) Endemics)
    (Nine fruit-doves, seven owlet-nightjars, 13 kingfishers, nine bowerbirds, 48 honeyeaters, 35 birds-of-paradise and 21 robins)
    Northern Cassowary, Wattled Brush-turkey, Black-billed (Yellow-legged) Brush-turkey, Collared (Red-legged) Brush-turkey, New Guinea Scrubfowl, Salvadori’s Teal, New Guinea Bronzewing, Cinnamon Ground-dove, Western Bronze Ground-dove, Thick-billed Ground-pigeon, Green-naped Pheasant-pigeon, Sclater’s Crowned-pigeon, Victoria Crowned-pigeon, Purple-tailed Imperial-pigeon, Shining (Rufescent) Imperial-pigeon, Pinon’s Imperial-pigeon, Collared Imperial-pigeon, Zoe’s Imperial-pigeon, Dwarf Fruit-dove, Orange-fronted Fruit-dove, Eastern Ornate Fruit-dove, Pink-spotted Fruit-dove, Orange-bellied Fruit-dove, Beautiful Fruit-dove, Coroneted Fruit-dove, Archbold’s Nightjar, Papuan Nightjar, Feline Owlet-nightjar, Spangled (Starry) Owlet-nightjar (small range), Allied (Vogelkop) Owlet-nightjar, Barred Owlet-nightjar, Wallace’s Owlet-nightjar, Archbold’s Owlet-nightjar, Mountain Owlet-nightjar, Papuan Spinetail, Papuan (Three-toed) Swiftlet, Bare-legged Swiftlet, Mountain Swiftlet, Ivory-billed (Greater Black) Coucal, Black-billed (Lesser Black) Coucal, Dwarf Koel, Long-billed Cuckoo, Rufous-throated Bronze-cuckoo, White-eared Bronze-cuckoo, White-crowned Cuckoo (Koel), Chestnut Forest-rail, Forbes’s Forest-rail, Mayr’s Forest-rail, New Guinea Flightless Rail, Forest Bittern, New Guinea Woodcock, Jungle (Papuan) Boobook, Papuan Hawk-owl, Long-tailed Honey-buzzard, Papuan (New Guinea) Eagle, Papuan Harrier (mostly Papua New Guinea), Grey-headed Goshawk, Black-mantled Goshawk, Chestnut-shouldered Goshawk, Doria’s Goshawk, New Guinea (Papuan) Dwarf-kingfisher, Mountain Kingfisher, Blue-black Kingfisher, Little Paradise-kingfisher, Red-breasted Paradise-kingfisher, Hook-billed Kingfisher, Spangled Kookaburra, Rufous-bellied Kookaburra, Shovel-billed Kingfisher, Pesquet’s Parrot, Brehm’s Tiger-parrot, Painted Tiger-parrot (mostly Papua New Guinea), Modest Tiger-parrot, Madarasz’s Tiger-parrot, Plum-faced Lorikeet, Striated Lorikeet, Pygmy Lorikeet, Red-fronted Lorikeet, Fairy Lorikeet, Josephine’s Lorikeet, Stella’s (Papuan) Lorikeet, Yellow-billed Lorikeet, Orange-billed Lorikeet, Black-capped Lory, Brown Lory, Yellow-streaked Lory, Dusky Lory, Goldie’s Lorikeet, Yellow-naped (Large) Fig-parrot, Red-faced (Large) Fig-parrot (mostly Papua New Guinea), Edwards’s Fig-parrot (mostly Papua New Guinea), Black-fronted (Orange-breasted) Fig-parrot, Dusky-cheeked (Orange-breasted) Fig-parrot, Orange-fronted (Papuan) Hanging-parrot, Papuan King-parrot, Blue-collared Parrot, Eastern Hooded Pitta, Ochre-breasted (White-eared) Catbird, Tan-capped (White-eared) Catbird, Northern Catbird, Archbold’s Bowerbird, MacGregor’s Bowerbird, Flame Bowerbird, Masked Bowerbird, Yellow-breasted Bowerbird, Papuan Treecreeper, Wallace’s Fairy-wren, Orange-crowned Fairy-wren, Broad-billed Fairy-wren, Emperor Fairy-wren, White-shouldered Fairy-wren, Silver-eared Honeyeater, Spotted Honeyeater, Meyer’s Friarbird, New Guinea (Helmeted) Friarbird, Ruby-throated Myzomela, Papuan Black Myzomela, Mountain (Elfin) Myzomela, Red-collared Myzomela, Plain Honeyeater, Marbled Honeyeater, Streak-headed Honeyeater, Leaden Honeyeater, Yellowish-streaked Honeyeater, Mayr’s Honeyeater, Grey-streaked Honeyeater, Long-billed Honeyeater, Tawny Straightbill, Olive Straightbill, MacGregor’s Honeyeater, Smoky Honeyeater, Puff-backed Honeyeater, Scrub Honeyeater, Hill-forest Honeyeater (Meliphaga), Mimic Honeyeater, Forest Honeyeater, Mottle-breasted Honeyeater (Spot-breasted Meliphaga), Graceful Honeyeater, Yellow-gaped Honeyeater, Obscure Honeyeater, Black-throated Honeyeater, Sooty Honeyeater (Meliphaga), Short-bearded Honeyeater (Meliphaga) (mostly West Papua), Cinnamon-browed Honeyeater (Meliphaga), Belford’s Honeyeater (Meliphaga), Yellow-browed Honeyeater (Meliphaga) (mostly Papua New Guinea), Ornate Honeyeater (Meliphaga), Goldenface, Yellow-bellied Gerygone, Brown-breasted Gerygone, Rusty Mouse-warbler, Bicoloured Mouse-warbler, Mountain Mouse-warbler, Pale-billed Scrubwren, Papuan Scrubwren, Buff-faced Scrubwren, Grey-green Scrubwren, Perplexing Scrubwren, Large Scrubwren, Grey Thornbill, New Guinea (Papuan) Thornbill, Papuan Logrunner, Papuan Babbler, Ploughbill, Papuan Sittella, Black Sittella, Northern Variable Pitohui, Southern Variable Pitohui, Hooded Pitohui, Brown Oriole, Tit Berrypecker, Eastern Crested Berrypecker, Rufous-naped Bellbird, Piping Bellbird, Spotted Jewel-babbler, Chestnut-backed Jewel-babbler, Blue Jewel-babbler, Painted Quail-thrush, Black Pitohui, Regent Whistler, Sclater’s Whistler, Lorentz’s Whistler, Rusty Whistler, Black-headed Whistler, Golden-backed Whistler, Rusty Pitohui, White-bellied Pitohui, Sooty Shrike-thrush, Sepik-Ramu (Little) Shrike-thrush, Papuan Whipbird, Hooded Cuckooshrike, Boyer’s Cuckooshrike, Golden Cuckooshrike, Black-bellied Cuckooshrike, Grey-headed Cicadabird, Black-shouldered (Papuan) Cicadabird, New Guinea (Black) Cicadabird, Black-browed Triller, Mottled Berryhunter, Lowland Peltops, Mountain Peltops, Hooded Butcherbird, Great Woodswallow, Black-breasted Boatbill, Drongo Fantail, Black Fantail, Sooty Thicket-fantail, Black Thicket-fantail, White-bellied Thicket-fantail, Dimorphic Fantail, Rufous-backed Fantail, Friendly Fantail, Chestnut-bellied Fantail, Blue-capped Ifrit(a), Ochre-collared Monarch, Frilled Monarch, Torrent-lark, Black (Fan-tailed) Monarch, Rufous Monarch, Spot-winged Monarch, Hooded Monarch, Golden Monarch, Grey Crow, Lesser Melampitta, Greater Melampitta, Glossy-mantled Manucode, Jobi Manucode, Crinkle-collared Manucode, King-of-Saxony Bird-of-paradise, Carola’s Parotia, Twelve-wired Bird-of-paradise, Black-billed Sicklebill, Pale-billed Sicklebill, Broad-plumed (Greater) Lophornia, Black Sicklebill, Brown Sicklebill, Short-tailed Paradigalla, Splendid Astrapia, King Bird-of-paradise, Magnificent Bird-of-paradise, Lesser Bird-of-paradise, Greater Bird-of-paradise, Obscure Berrypecker, Black Berrypecker, Mid-mountain Berrypecker, Fan-tailed Berrypecker, Streaked Berrypecker, Thick-billed (Spotted) Berrypecker, Spectacled Longbill, Pygmy Longbill, Yellow-bellied Longbill, Slaty-headed (Slaty-chinned) Longbill, Loria’s Satinbird, Red (Crested) Satinbird, Yellow-breasted Satinbird, Greater Ground-robin, Lesser Ground-robin, Green-backed Robin, White-eyed Robin, Garnet Robin, Subalpine Robin, Olive Flyrobin, Canary Flyrobin, Torrent Flyrobin, Papuan Scrub-robin, Black-throated Robin, Black-chinned Robin, Black-sided Robin, Black-capped Robin, Banded Yellow (Olive-yellow) Robin, White-winged Robin, Blue-grey Robin, White-rumped Robin, Papuan Grassbird, Fly River Grassbird, Black-fronted White-eye, Green-fronted White-eye, Capped White-eye, New Guinea White-eye, Yellow-faced Myna, Golden Myna, Yellow-eyed Starling, Red-capped Flowerpecker, Rand’s (Olive-backed) Sunbird, Streak-headed Mannikin, White-spotted (Streak-headed) Mannikin, Great-billed (Grand) Munia, Grey-crowned Munia, Black Munia, Snow Mountain Munia, Mountain Firetail, Papuan Parrotfinch and Alpine Pipit.

    New Guinea, Kai Islands and Gebe 1
    Yellow-capped Pygmy-parrot.

    New Guinea and New Britain (Bismarck Archipelago) 3
    Dwarf Cassowary, Red Myzomela and Hooded Mannikin (Munia).

    New Guinea and Bismarck Archipelago 3
    Black-billed Cuckoo-dove, Purple-bellied Lory (Papua New Guinea only) and Buff-faced Pygmy-parrot.

    New Guinea to Solomon Islands 5
    White-breasted (White-bibbed) Ground-dove, Island Imperial-pigeon (islands off New Guinea), Papuan Eclectus, Melanesian Cicadabird (Papua New Guinea only) and Singing Starling.

    New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Australia 1
    Russet-tailed Thrush (Papua New Guinea only, and Choiseul Island in the Solomon Islands).

    New Guinea and Australia 92
    Magpie Goose, Marbled Frogmouth, Papuan Frogmouth, White-throated Nightjar (Papua New Guinea only), Australian Owlet-nightjar (Papua New Guinea only), Black-eared Cuckoo (rare in Indonesia), Pallid Cuckoo (rare in Indonesia), Brolga (Crane), Australian Bustard, Straw-necked Ibis, White-necked (Pacific) Heron, Bush Thick-knee, Pied Oystercatcher (also recorded on Kai Islands), Masked Lapwing (irregular in Indonesia), Red-kneed Dotterel, Australian Gull-billed Tern, Greater Sooty-owl, Australian Masked-owl, Rufous Owl, Wedge-tailed Eagle, Collared Sparrowhawk, Whistling Kite, Yellow-billed Kingfisher, Forest Kingfisher (rare in Indonesia), Torresian (Collared) Kingfisher, Buff-breasted Paradise-kingfisher, Blue-winged Kookaburra, Nankeen (Australian) Kestrel (also Christmas Island, and rare in Indonesia), Brown Falcon, Palm Cockatoo (Cape York only in Australia), Little Corella, Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, Double-eyed Fig-parrot, Red-winged Parrot, Papuan Pitta, Noisy Pitta, Black-eared Catbird (Cape York only in Australia), Fawn-breasted Bowerbird (Cape York only in Australia), Brown Honeyeater, Blue-faced Honeyeater, White-throated Honeyeater, Tawny-breasted Honeyeater (Cape York only in Australia), Little Friarbird, Noisy Friarbird, Dusky Myzomela, Red-headed Myzomela, Green-backed Honeyeater (Cape York only in Australia), Brown-backed Honeyeater, Rufous-banded Honeyeater, Varied Honeyeater, Yellow-tinted Honeyeater, Fairy Gerygone, Green-backed Gerygone, White-throated Gerygone (Papua New Guinea only), Large-billed Gerygone, Mangrove Gerygone (Papua New Guinea only), Tropical Scrubwren (Cape York only in Australia), Grey-crowned Babbler, Australasian Figbird, Olive-backed Oriole, Green Oriole (also Romang Island, east of Timor), Brown (Grey) Whistler, Black-tailed Whistler, Little Shrike-thrush, Rufous (Little) Shrike-thrush, Grey Shrike-thrush, White-winged Triller (Papua New Guinea only), Varied Triller, Black Butcherbird, Australian Magpie, Black-backed Butcherbird (Cape York only in Australia), Black-faced Woodswallow (range also reaches Timor, Leti and Sermata), Yellow-breasted Boatbill, Northern Fantail, Mangrove Fantail (Papua New Guinea and Aru Islands only), Leaden Flycatcher, Satin Flycatcher, Paperbark Flycatcher, Magpie-lark (also east Timor), Black-winged Monarch (Cape York only in Australia), Black-faced Monarch, Trumpet Manucode (Cape York only in Australia), Magnificent Riflebird (Cape York only in Australia), Yellow-legged Flyrobin (Cape York only in Australia), Lemon-bellied Flyrobin, Jacky Winter (Papua New Guinea only), White-faced Robin (Cape York only in Australia), Mangrove Robin, Little Grassbird (West Papua only), Chestnut-breasted Munia, White-bellied Crimson Finch (Cape York only in Australia) and Australasian Pipit (Papua New Guinea only).

    PAPUA NEW GUINEA Mainland 33 (136 including islands, from those just to the east of the mainland, and those from Manus in the Admiralty Islands through New Britain and New Ireland of the Bismarck Archipelago, to Bougainville)
    (Two bowerbirds and 11 birds-of-paradise)
    Central 15
    Grey-naped Pheasant-pigeon, Creamy-breasted (Orange-breasted) Fig-parrot, Campbell’s Fairy-wren (west), Rufous-backed Honeyeater, Long-bearded Honeyeater, Dimorphic Jewel-babbler, Brown-backed Whistler, White-bellied Whistler (also Louisiade Archipelago), Lawes’s Parotia, Growling Riflebird, Stephanie’s Astrapia, Ribbon-tailed Astrapia (Central Highlands), Blue Bird-of-paradise, Raggiana Bird-of-paradise and Spotted (Thick-billed) Berrypecker.

    Southeast mainland 11
    Scheepmaker’s Crowned-pigeon, Brown-headed Paradise-kingfisher, Black-capped (Black-eared) Catbird, Streaked Bowerbird, Elegant Honeyeater, Variable (Little) Shrike-thrush (also nearby islands), Eastern Parotia, Lesser Lophornia (Superb Bird-of-paradise), Yellow Satinbird, Grey-headed Mannikin/Munia and Alpine Mannikin/Munia.

    Adelbert Mountains, northeast mainland 1
    Fire-maned Bowerbird.

    Adelbert Mountains and Huon Peninsula 1
    Wahnes’s Parotia.

    Huon Peninsula 5
    Huon (Black-eared) Catbird, Spangled Honeyeater, Huon Honeyeater, Huon Astrapia and Emperor Bird-of-paradise.

    Offshore East New Guinea
    D’Entrecasteaux Islands 4
    Black-naped Pheasant-pigeon (Fergusson), Long-billed Myzomela (Goodenough), Goldie’s Bird-of-paradise and Oya Tabu (Capped) White-eye.

    D’Entrecasteaux Islands and Trobriand Islands 1
    Curl-crested Manucode.

    D’Entrecasteaux Islands and Louisiade Archipelago 1
    Louisiade Imperial-pigeon.

    Louisiade Archipelago 11
    Colonist Kingfisher (also nearby islands), Louisiade Pitta (Rossel), White-chinned Myzomela, Tagula Honeyeater (Tagula), Louisiade Whistler, Tagula (Little) Shrike-thrush (Tagula), Rossel (Common) Cicadabird (Rossel), Tagula Butcherbird (Tagula), Tagula White-eye (Tagula), Louisiade White-eye (also other islands) and Louisiade Flowerpecker.

    BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO (Admiralty Islands, New Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover etc.) 68
    Karkar Island, off northeast mainland 1
    Sclater’s Myzomela (also other small islands).

    Admiralty Islands (Manus etc.) 8
    Manus Masked-owl, Manus Boobook, Manus Dwarf-kingfisher, Superb Pitta, White-naped Friarbird, Manus Cuckooshrike, Admiralty Cicadabird and Manus Monarch.

    Admiralty Islands and rest of Bismarck Archipelago (New Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover etc.) 5
    Pied Cuckoo-dove, Yellowish Imperial-pigeon, Yellow-breasted Pygmy-parrot (only St Matthias in Bismarck Archipelago), Bismarck Black Myzomela and Manus Fantail (extinct on Manus).

    Widespread New Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover etc. 16
    Finsch’s Imperial-pigeon, Bismarck Imperial-pigeon, Knob-billed Fruit-dove, Pied Coucal, Violaceous Coucal, New Britain Sparrowhawk, Bismarck Kingfisher, Red-chinned Lorikeet, Bismarck Hanging-parrot, Bismarck Whistler, White-backed Woodswallow, Bismarck Fantail, Black-tailed Monarch, Bismarck Crow, Bismarck (Black-headed) White-eye and Red-banded Flowerpecker.

    New Britain 20
    New Britain Bronzewing, New Britain Rail, Golden Masked-owl, New Britain Boobook, Black Honey-buzzard, New Britain Goshawk, Slaty-backed Goshawk (also Umboi), New Britain Dwarf-kingfisher, New Britain Kingfisher, Black-headed Paradise-kingfisher, Blue-eyed Cockatoo, New Britain Pitta, New Britain Friarbird, Bismarck Honeyeater, Ashy Myzomela (also Umboi), Black-bellied Myzomela, New Britain Flyrobin, New Britain (Bismarck) Thicketbird, Rusty Thicketbird and New Britain Thrush.

    New Ireland 8
    New Ireland Dwarf-kingfisher, White-naped Lory, New Ireland Pitta, New Ireland Friarbird, Reddish Myzomela (also nearby islands), New Ireland Myzomela, Ribbon-tailed Drongo and New Ireland Mannikin.

    New Ireland and New Hanover 1
    Bismarck Boobook.

    New Hanover 1
    New Hanover Mannikin/Munia.

    Tabar 1
    Tabar Pitta.

    Djaul 2
    Djaul (Mussau) Flycatcher and Djaul (Black-tailed) Monarch.

    St Matthias Group 1
    White-breasted Monarch.

    Mussau 4 (St Matthias Group)
    Mussau Triller, Mussau Fantail, Mussau (Dull) Flycatcher and Velvet (Mussau) Flycatcher.

    Admiralty Islands, rest of Bismarck Archipelago, Bougainville and Solomon Islands 3
    Melanesian Scrubfowl (also Karkar and Bagabag Islands), Eastern Bronze Ground-dove and Yellow-banded (Yellow-bibbed) Fruit-dove.

    Bismarck Archipelago (New Britain etc.) and Caroline Islands 1
    Hunstein’s (Mottled) Mannikin/Munia.

    Bismarck Archipelago (New Britain etc.) and Buka Island (north of Bougainville) 1
    Buff-bellied Mannikin/Munia.

    Bismarck Archipelago (New Britain etc.), Bougainville and Solomon Islands 10
    Yellow-legged Pigeon, Red-knobbed Imperial-pigeon, Mayr’s Swiftlet, Heinroth’s Shearwater, Pied Goshawk, Melanesian Kingfisher, Cardinal Lory, Song (Singing) Parrot, Green Pygmy-parrot, Long-tailed Myna and Atoll Starling.

    Bougainville 12 (Papua New Guinea)
    Bougainville Rail, Bougainville Dwarf-kingfisher, Bougainville Moustached Kingfisher, Bougainville Honeyeater, Bougainville Hooded Whistler, Bougainville (Brown) Fantail, Bougainville Monarch, Bougainville Crow, Bougainville Thicketbird, Bougainville Bush-warbler, Bougainville White-eye and Bougainville Thrush.

    Bougainville and Solomon Islands 24
    Crested Cuckoo-dove, Pale Mountain-pigeon, Solomons Frogmouth, Solomons Nightjar, West Solomons Boobook, Fearful Owl, Imitator Goshawk, Sanford’s Sea-eagle, Ultramarine Kingfisher, Solomons (Ducorps’s) Cockatoo, Meek’s Lorikeet, Duchess Lorikeet, Black-faced Pitta, Red-capped (Scarlet-naped) Myzomela, Oriole Whistler, North Melanesian Cuckooshrike, Solomons Cicadabird, White-winged (Cockerell’s) Fantail, Steel-blue Flycatcher, Solomons Pied (Black-and-white) Monarch, Yellow-throated White-eye, White-eyed Starling, Brown-winged Starling and Midget Flowerpecker.

    (Six kingfishers, eight monarchs and 13 white-eyes)
    More than one island 9
    Chestnut-bellied Imperial-pigeon, Silver-capped Fruit-dove, Buff-headed Coucal, North Solomons Dwarf-kingfisher, Yellow-bibbed Lory, Crimson-rumped (Yellow-vented) Myzomela, Chestnut-bellied Monarch, White-billed Crow and Grey-throated White-eye.

    Santa Isabel 1
    Santa Isabel (Guadalcanal) Rail.

    New Georgia Islands 12
    Roviana Rail, New Georgia Dwarf-kingfisher, New Georgia (Solomons) Cicadabird, Kolombangara Monarch, White-capped Monarch, Kolombangara Leaf-warbler, Vella Lavella (Banded) White-eye, Ranongga (Ganongga) White-eye, Gizo (Splendid) White-eye, Solomons White-eye, Dark-eyed (Rendova) White-eye and Kolombangara White-eye.

    Guadalcanal 10
    Guadalcanal (Woodford’s) Rail, Guadalcanal Boobook, Guadalcanal Dwarf-kingfisher, Guadalcanal Moustached Kingfisher, Guadalcanal Honeyeater, Black-headed Myzomela (also nearby islands), Guadalcanal Hooded Whistler, Guadalcanal (Brown) Fantail, Guadalcanal Thicketbird and Guadalcanal Thrush.

    Malaita 8
    Malaita Boobook, Malaita Dwarf-kingfisher, Malaita (Red-bellied) Myzomela, White-gorgeted Fantail, Malaita Fantail, Malaita Monarch, Malaita White-eye and Malaita (Midget) Flowerpecker.

    Ugi (Uki) 1
    Ugi (Chestnut-bellied) Monarch.

    Makira 16
    White-headed Fruit-dove (also associated islands), Makira Moorhen, Makira Boobook, San Cristobal (Makira) Dwarf-kingfisher, Makira Honeyeater, Sooty Myzomela (also nearby islands), Makira Cicadabird, Dusky Fantail, Makira (Ochre-headed) Flycatcher, White-collared Monarch, Makira (Chestnut-bellied) Monarch, Makira Leaf-warbler, Shade Bush-warbler, Makira Starling, Makira Thrush and Mottled Flowerpecker.

    Rennell 8
    Rennell (Singing/Song) Parrot, Rennell (Fan-tailed) Gerygone, Rennell Whistler, Rennell Fantail, Rennell Shrikebill, Bare-eyed White-eye, Rennell White-eye and Rennell Starling.

    Santa Cruz Islands (Solomon Islands) 7
    Temotu Whistler, White-fronted (Rufous) Fantail, Vanikoro Monarch, Nendo (Santa Cruz) Shrikebill, Sanford’s White-eye (Nendo), Santa Cruz White-eye (Nendo) and Vanikoro White-eye.

    Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia 5
    Red-bellied Fruit-dove, Satin (Glossy) Swiftlet, Cardinal Myzomela, Long-tailed Triller and Melanesian Flycatcher.

    Solomon Islands and Fiji 1
    Vanikoro Flycatcher.

    Santa Cruz Islands and Vanuatu 3
    Santa Cruz Ground-dove, Palm Lorikeet and Rusty-winged Starling.

    VANUATU 11
    Vanuatu Scrubfowl, Vanuatu (Baker’s) Imperial-pigeon, Tanna Fruit-dove, Vanuatu Kingfisher, Vanuatu Honeyeater, Vanuatu Streaked Fantail, Buff-bellied Monarch, Santo Thicketbird, Vanuatu (Yellow-fronted) White-eye, Mountain Starling and Royal (Red-headed) Parrotfinch.

    Vanuatu and New Caledonia 5
    Grey-eared (Dark-brown) Honeyeater, Fan-tailed Gerygone, Melanesian (Vanuatu) Whistler, South Melanesian Cuckooshrike and Southern Shrikebill.

    Mainland 19
    Kagu, New Caledonian Imperial-pigeon, Cloven-feathered Dove, White-bellied (New Caledonian) Goshawk, Horned Parakeet, New Caledonian Parakeet, Crow Honeyeater, New Caledonian Friarbird, New Caledonian (Scarlet) Myzomela, Barred Honeyeater, New Caledonian Whistler, New Caledonian Cicadabird, New Caledonian Streaked Fantail, New Caledonian Crow, Yellow-bellied Robin, New Caledonian Thicketbird, Green-backed White-eye, Striated Starling and Red-throated Parrotfinch.

    Loyalty Islands 3
    Ouvea Parakeet, Large Lifou White-eye and Small Lifou White-eye.

    ('New Caledonian Storm-petrel' (similar to New Zealand Storm-petrel) remained undescribed in 2021. It was believed at that time to range through the subtropical western Pacific as far west as the Brisbane Seamounts off eastern Australia)

    New Caledonian Nightjar, New Caledonian Rail and New Caledonian (Painted) Buttonquail are probably or presumed extinct, there have been no recent records of New Caledonian Owlet-nightjar, and there is only one old record (from Mount Ignambi) of New Caledonian Lorikeet)

    FIJI 35
    Widespread 14
    Barking (Peale’s) Imperial-pigeon, Fiji Petrel, Fiji Goshawk, Red-throated Lorikeet, Collared Lory, Orange-breasted Myzomela, Fiji Whistler, Fiji Woodswallow, Fiji Streaked Fantail, Slaty Monarch, Black-throated Shrikebill, Fiji Bush-warbler, Fiji (Layard’s) White-eye and Fiji Parrotfinch.

    Vanua Levu 1
    Natewa Silktail (Natewa Peninsula).

    Vanua Levu and Viti Levu 2
    Chestnut-throated Flycatcher and Long-legged Thicketbird.

    Vanua Levu and Taveuni 4
    Orange Dove, Maroon (Red) Shining-parrot (introduced to Tonga), Yellow-billed (Chattering Giant) Honeyeater and Fiji Wattled (Northern Wattled) Honeyeater.

    Taveuni 3
    Taveuni Silktail, Taveuni Streaked Fantail and Azure-crested Flycatcher.

    Viti Levu 5
    Golden Dove, Masked Shining-parrot, Giant (Duetting Giant) Honeyeater, Kikau (Western Wattled Honeyeater) and Pink-billed Parrotfinch.

    Kadavu 4
    Whistling (Velvet) Dove (also Ono), Crimson Shining-parrot (also Ono), Kadavu Honeyeater and Kadavu Fantail.

    Rotuma 1
    Rotuma Myzomela.

    South Lao 1
    Ogea Monarch.

    Photograph of Collared Lory

    The glorious Collared Lory at Colo-i-Suva Rainforest Eco Resort by Dubi Shapiro. This species is endemic throughout the Fiji archipelago and the only rainforest bird there that has adapted to live in man-made landscapes including urban Suva.

    Fiji, Samoa and Tonga 1
    Many-coloured Fruit-dove.

    Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, and Wallis and Futuna 1
    Shy Ground-dove.

    Fiji, American Samoa, and Wallis and Futuna 1
    Fiji Shrikebill.

    (Western) SAMOA 9
    Tooth-billed Pigeon, Flat-billed Kingfisher, Mao, Samoan Whistler, Samoan Triller, Samoan Fantail, Samoan Flycatcher, Samoan White-eye and Red-headed Parrotfinch.

    (Samoan Moorhen is probably extinct)

    (Western) Samoa and American Samoa 3
    Samoan (Crimson-crowned) Fruit-dove, Samoan (Cardinal) Myzomela and Samoan Starling.

    TONGA 2
    Tongan (Niuafoou) Scrubfowl and Tongan Whistler.

    (Six buttonquails, 31 parrots, seven bowerbirds, ten fairy-wrens, 64 honeyeaters, seven quail-thrushes and two birds-of-paradise)
    No particular region 196
    Common Emu, Malleefowl, Stubble Quail, Plumed Whistling-duck (rare in New Guinea), Blue-billed Duck, Musk Duck, Pink-eared Duck, Freckled Duck, Black Swan, Maned Duck, Hardhead (rare in New Guinea and Lesser Sundas), Chestnut Teal, Hoary-headed Grebe, Spinifex Pigeon, Common Bronzewing, Brush Bronzewing, Flock Bronzewing, Crested Pigeon, Diamond Dove, Tawny Frogmouth, Australian Crake, Black-tailed Native-hen, Yellow-billed Spoonbill, Black-faced Cormorant (southeast and southwest), Sooty Oystercatcher, Banded Stilt (mainly west), Red-necked Avocet, Hooded Plover, Banded Lapwing, Inland Dotterel, Plains-wanderer, Australian Painted-snipe, Painted Buttonquail, Red-chested Buttonquail, Little Buttonquail, Pacific Gull, Black-shouldered Kite, Letter-winged Kite, Black-breasted Buzzard, Square-tailed Kite, Little Eagle, Grey Goshawk, Red Goshawk, Red-backed Kingfisher, Laughing Kookaburra, Grey Falcon, Black Falcon, Cockatiel, Red-tailed Black-cockatoo, Yellow-tailed Black-cockatoo, Galah, Major Mitchell’s (Pink) Cockatoo, Red-rumped Parrot, Greater Bluebonnet, Mulga Parrot, Crimson Rosella, Pale-headed Rosella, Eastern Rosella, Australian Ringneck, Night Parrot, Bourke’s Parrot, Elegant Parrot, Rock Parrot, Turquoise Parrot, Scarlet-chested Parrot, Musk Lorikeet, Little Lorikeet, Purple-crowned Lorikeet, Rainbow Lorikeet, Budgerigar, Regent Parrot, Spotted Bowerbird, Western Bowerbird, Great Bowerbird, White-throated Treecreeper, White-browed Treecreeper, Brown Treecreeper, Black-tailed Treecreeper, Purple-backed Fairy-wren, Superb Fairy-wren, Splendid Fairy-wren, Red-backed Fairy-wren, White-winged Fairy-wren, Southern Emu-wren, Mallee Emu-wren, Western Grasswren, Banded Honeyeater, White-cheeked Honeyeater, New Holland Honeyeater, White-naped Honeyeater, Golden-backed (Black-chinned) Honeyeater, Black-chinned Honeyeater, Brown-headed Honeyeater, White-eared Honeyeater, Striped Honeyeater, Painted Honeyeater, Silver-crowned Friarbird, Black Honeyeater, Eastern Spinebill, Pied Honeyeater, Tawny-crowned Honeyeater, Bar-breasted Honeyeater, Rufous-throated Honeyeater, Yellow Chat, Crimson Chat, White-fronted Chat, Orange Chat, White-gaped Honeyeater, Spiny-cheeked Honeyeater, Little Wattlebird, Red Wattlebird, Singing Honeyeater, White-plumed Honeyeater, Yellow-plumed Honeyeater, Fuscous Honeyeater, Grey-headed Honeyeater, Grey-fronted Honeyeater, White-fronted Honeyeater, Yellow-faced Honeyeater, Purple-gaped Honeyeater, Yellow-tufted Honeyeater, Noisy Miner, Yellow-throated Miner, Spotted Pardalote, Red-browed Pardalote, Striated Pardalote, Western Gerygone, Weebill, Redthroat, Speckled Warbler, Shy Heathwren, Rufous Fieldwren, White-browed Scrubwren, Southern Whiteface, Yellow-rumped Thornbill, Yellow Thornbill, Striated Thornbill, Inland Thornbill, Brown Thornbill, Slaty-backed Thornbill, Slender-billed Thornbill, Chestnut-rumped Thornbill, Buff-rumped Thornbill, Hall’s Babbler, White-browed Babbler, Chestnut-crowned Babbler, Varied Sittella, Crested Bellbird, Spotted Quail-thrush, Chestnut Quail-thrush, Copperback Quail-thrush, Western Quail-thrush, Chestnut-breasted Quail-thrush, Cinnamon Quail-thrush, Eastern Shrike-tit, Gilbert’s Whistler, Chiming Wedgebill, Chirruping Wedgebill, Ground Cuckooshrike, Pied Currawong, Grey Currawong, Pied Butcherbird, Grey Butcherbird, Masked Woodswallow, White-browed Woodswallow, Dusky Woodswallow, Little Woodswallow, Restless Flycatcher, Little Crow, Australian Raven, White-winged Chough, Apostlebird, Rose Robin, Scarlet Robin, Red-capped Robin, Southern Scrub-robin, Eastern Yellow Robin, Eastern Hooded Robin, Western Hooded Robin, Brown Songlark, Rufous Songlark, Spinifexbird, White-backed Swallow, Fairy Martin, Australian Yellow White-eye, Bassian Thrush, Mistletoebird, Pictorella Mannikin, Diamond Firetail, Painted Finch (Firetail), Red-browed Finch, Crimson Finch, Star Finch, Masked Finch, Australian Zebra Finch and Double-barred Finch.

    East 34
    Australian Brush-turkey, White-headed Pigeon, Brown Cuckoo-dove, Wonga Pigeon, Topknot Pigeon, Black-breasted Buttonquail, Powerful Owl, Glossy Black-cockatoo (also Kangaroo Island off south coast), Eastern Ground Parrot, Scaly-breasted Lorikeet, Coxen’s (Double-eyed) Fig-parrot, Australian King-parrot, Albert’s Lyrebird, Superb Lyrebird, Rufous Scrub-bird, Green Catbird, Regent Bowerbird, Satin Bowerbird, Red-browed Treecreeper, Variegated Fairy-wren, Eastern Bristlebird, Scarlet Myzomela, Lewin’s Honeyeater, Mangrove Honeyeater, Bell Miner, Brown Gerygone, Yellow-throated Scrubwren, Large-billed Scrubwren, Australian Logrunner, Eastern Whipbird, White-eared Monarch, Paradise Riflebird, Pale-yellow Robin and Plum-headed Finch.

    Northeast 22
    Squatter Pigeon, Australian Swiftlet, Red (Southern) Boobook, Spotted Catbird, Tooth-billed Bowerbird, Golden Bowerbird, Lovely Fairy-wren, Rusty (Striated) Grasswren, Hornbill Friarbird, Yellow-spotted Honeyeater, Imitatress (Graceful) Honeyeater, Yellow Honeyeater, Bridled Honeyeater, Eungella Honeyeater, Fernwren, Atherton Scrubwren, Mountain Thornbill, Chowchilla, Bower’s Shrike-thrush, Victoria’s Riflebird, White-browed Robin and Black-throated Finch.

    Cape York Peninsula, far northeast 9
    Buff-breasted Buttonquail, Lesser Sooty-owl, Golden-shouldered Parrot, White-streaked Honeyeater, Macleay’s Honeyeater, Frill-necked Monarch, Pied Monarch, Northern Scrub-robin and Grey-headed Robin.

    Southeast including Tasmania 20
    Cape Barren Goose, Gang-gang Cockatoo, Long-billed Corella, Blue-winged Parrot, Superb Parrot, Striated Grasswren, Rufous Bristlebird, Crescent Honeyeater, Regent Honeyeater, Pilotbird, Chestnut-rumped Heathwren, Striated Fieldwren, Rockwarbler, Olive Whistler, Red-lored Whistler, Little Raven, Forest Raven, Pink Robin, Flame Robin and Beautiful Firetail.

    Tasmania 14
    Tasmanian Native-hen, Tasmanian Masked-owl, Tasmanian Boobook, Green Rosella, Black-headed Honeyeater, Strong-billed Honeyeater, Yellow-throated Honeyeater, Yellow Wattlebird, Forty-spotted Pardalote, Tasmanian Scrubwren, Scrubtit, Tasmanian Thornbill, Black Currawong and Dusky Robin.

    (Swift Parrot winters north to Queensland and Orange-bellied Parrot winters north to southeast mainland)

    North 11
    Chestnut-quilled Rock-pigeon, Grey-rumped (Black-banded) Fruit-dove, Chestnut-backed Buttonquail, Hooded Parrot, Red-collared Lorikeet, White-throated Grasswren, Carpentarian Grasswren, Kalkadoon Grasswren (Selwyn Range), White-lined Honeyeater, Northern Shrike-tit and Grey Whistler.

    North and Northwest 13
    Partridge Pigeon, Northern Rosella, Varied Lorikeet, Rainbow Pitta, Purple-crowned Fairy-wren, White-quilled (Blue-faced) Honeyeater, White-breasted Whistler, Sandstone Shrike-thrush, Silver-backed Butcherbird, Buff-sided Robin, Yellow-rumped Mannikin, Long-tailed Finch and Gouldian Finch.

    Northwest 5
    White-quilled Rock-pigeon, Black Grasswren, Kimberley Honeyeater, Dusky Gerygone (south to Pilbara coast) and Kimberley Flyrobin.

    Inland west 3
    Princess Parrot, Sandhill (Striated) Grasswren and Dusky Grasswren.

    Central/West-central 6
    Rufous-crowned Emu-wren, Grey Grasswren, Pilbara (Striated) Grasswren, Eyrean Grasswren, Grey Honeyeater and Gibberbird.

    Southwest 19
    Long-billed Black-cockatoo, Short-billed Black-cockatoo, Western Corella, Red-capped Parrot, Western Rosella, Western Ground Parrot, Noisy Scrub-bird, Red-winged Fairy-wren, Western Bristlebird, Gilbert’s Honeyeater, Western Spinebill, Western Wattlebird, Western Fieldwren, Western Thornbill, Western Shrike-tit, Western Whistler, Western Whipbird, White-breasted Robin and Red-eared Firetail.

    Nullarbor region 2
    Naretha Bluebonnet and Nullarbor Quail-thrush.

    West 4
    Rufous Treecreeper, Blue-breasted Fairy-wren, Spotted (White-browed) Scrubwren and Western Yellow Robin.

    South 6
    Short-tailed Grasswren, Thick-billed Grasswren, Black-eared Miner (east of Adelaide), Chestnut-breasted Whiteface, Banded Whiteface and White-bellied Whipbird.

    Australia and Aru Islands 1
    Chestnut Rail.

    Australia, Aru Islands, and Kai and Tanimbar Islands 1
    Spotted Nightjar.

    Australia, Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island 1
    Golden Whistler.

    Norfolk Island Parakeet, Norfolk Gerygone, Norfolk Robin, Slender-billed White-eye and White-chested White-eye.

    Norfolk Island and New Zealand 1

    Lord Howe Woodhen.

    Australia and New Zealand 11
    Fiordland Penguin, Snares Penguin, Little (Blue) Penguin, Fluttering Shearwater, Hutton’s Shearwater, Australasian Gannet, Great Pied Cormorant, Double-banded Plover, Black-fronted Dotterel, Black-shouldered (Masked) Lapwing and White-fronted Tern.

    NEW ZEALAND 54 (not including Chatham and Subantarctic Islands)
    (Six endemic families: kiwis (5 species), NZ parrots (3), NZ wrens (2), mohouas (3), NZ wattlebirds (4) and Stitchbird, as well as four shags and seven shorebirds)
    Widespread 26
    Paradise Shelduck, Blue Duck, New Zealand Scaup, Brown Teal, New Zealand Pigeon, Weka, Spotted Shag, South Island Oystercatcher, Variable Oystercatcher, Shore Plover (being reintroduced to various offshore islands with last wild birds on Chatham), Wrybill, Black-billed Gull, Black-fronted Tern (mainly South Island), New Zealand Falcon, New Zealand Kaka, Yellow-fronted Parakeet, Malherbe’s Parakeet (local), Red-fronted Parakeet (local), Rifleman, Tui (mainly North Island), New Zealand Bellbird, Grey Gerygone, New Zealand Fantail, New Zealand Tomtit, New Zealand Fernbird and New Zealand Pipit.

    North Island 9
    Little Spotted Kiwi (islands offshore), Northern Brown (North Island) Kiwi, New Zealand Grebe, Northern Red-breasted Plover, Whitehead, North Island Kokako, North Island Saddleback, Stitchbird and North Island Robin.

    South Island 18
    Great Spotted Kiwi, Southern Brown Kiwi (also Stewart Island), Okarito Kiwi, South Island Takahe, Yellow-eyed Penguin (also Subantarctic Islands), Whenua Hou (South Georgia) Diving-petrel, Rough-faced Shag (New Zealand King Cormorant) (Marlborough Sounds), Otago Shag, Black Stilt (Upper Waitaki Valley), Southern Red-breasted Plover (also Stewart Island), Kakapo, Kea, New Zealand Rockwren, Yellowhead, Pipipi (also Stewart Island), South Island Kokako, South Island Saddleback and South Island Robin.

    Stewart Island 1
    Foveaux Shag.

    (New Zealand Storm-petrel breeds in north New Zealand (mostly Feb-Jul) and ranges at sea as far as Australia and Fiji)

    Chatham Islands 8
    Chatham Pigeon, Chatham Shag, Pitt (Island) Shag, Chatham Oystercatcher, Chatham Snipe, Chatham Parakeet, Chatham Gerygone and Black Robin.

    (Chatham (White-capped) Albatross breeds only on Pyramid Rock (mostly Sep-Apr) and ranges at sea across the south Pacific to the Humboldt Current off Chile, Chatham Petrel breeds mainly on Southeast Island (mostly Jan-May) and ranges to the east Pacific off Chile and Peru, and Magenta Petrel, also known as Taiko, breeds mostly Dec-Apr and ranges to waters off the Juan Fernandez Islands and Pitcairn in the south Pacific)

    Subantarctic Islands (Snares, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes and Bounty Islands) 13
    Auckland Teal, Campbell Teal, Auckland Rail (Adams and Disappointment), Erect-crested Penguin, Campbell Shag, Bounty Shag, Auckland Shag, Snares Snipe, Auckland (Subantarctic) Snipe (Auckland, Campbell and Antipodes), Antipodes Parakeet, Reischek’s (Red-crowned) Parakeet (Antipodes), Snares Tomtit and Snares Fernbird.

    Macquarie Island (Australia) 2
    Royal Penguin and Macquarie Shag.

    Photograph of Royal Penguin

    Royal Penguin by Jon Hornbuckle. This species is endemic to Macquarie Island although vagrants have reached Antarctica, New Zealand and Australia.

    PALAU 13
    Palau Ground-dove, Palau Fruit-dove, Palau Nightjar, Palau Swiftlet, Palau Owl, Palau Kingfisher, Morningbird (a whistler), Palau Cicadabird, Palau Fantail, Palau Flycatcher, Palau Bush-warbler, Giant White-eye and Dusky White-eye.

    Palau and Northern Mariana Islands 1
    Micronesian Scrubfowl.

    Palau, Northern Mariana Islands and Micronesia 1
    Micronesian Myzomela.

    Palau, Chuuk and Pohnpei 1
    Citrine (Caroline Islands) White-eye.

    Palau, Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Nauru 1
    Micronesian Imperial-pigeon.

    GUAM 1
    Guam Kingfisher (extinct in the wild since 1988 due to the introduction of Brown Tree Snakes (the reason other Guam birds have become extinct) this species now survives only in captivity where there were fewer than two hundred individuals in 2017, although there were plans then to reintroduce some birds to another suitable island).

    (Guam Rail is extinct on Guam but has been introduced on Cocos and Rota Islands in the Northern Mariana Islands)

    Guam and Northern Mariana Islands 1
    Mariana Swiftlet.

    Mariana Fruit-dove, Mariana Kingfisher, Tinian Monarch (Tinian, and introduced to Guguan), Mariana Crow (Rota, and reintroduced to Guam), Saipan Reed-warbler (Saipan and Alamagan), Golden White-eye (Saipan and Aguijan), Saipan White-eye (Saipan, Tinian and Aguijan) and Rota White-eye (Rota only).

    Northern Mariana Islands and Yap (Micronesia) 1
    White-throated Ground-dove.

    Widespread 2
    Caroline Swiftlet (Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae) and Caroline Reed-warbler.

    Yap 4
    Yap Cicadabird, Yap Monarch, Yap Plain White-eye and Yap Olive White-eye.

    Chuuk (Truk) 3
    Chuuk (Oceanic) Flycatcher, Chuuk Monarch and Teardrop White-eye.

    Chuuk and Pohnpei 2
    Caroline Ground-dove and Pohnpei (Purple-capped) Fruit-dove.

    Pohnpei 8
    Pohnpei Kingfisher, Pohnpei Lorikeet, Pohnpei Cicadabird, Pohnpei Fantail, Pohnpei Flycatcher, Long-billed White-eye, Pohnpei White-eye and Pohnpei Starling (not recorded since a specimen from 1994 despite an expedition to the high ridges in late 2010 and a thorough survey of the island in 2012).

    Kosrae 2
    Kosrae Fruit-dove and Kosrae White-eye.

    NAURU 1
    Nauru Reed-warbler.

    Kiritimati Reed-warbler.

    Kiribati (Phoenix and Line Islands) and Marquesas Islands 1
    Little White Tern.

    Rarotonga (Cook Islands) Fruit-dove (Rarotonga and Atiu), Atiu Swiftlet, Mangaia (Mewing) Kingfisher, Rarotonga Monarch, Cook Reed-warbler and Rarotonga Starling.

    Cook Islands and Society Islands (French Polynesia) 1
    Chattering Kingfisher.

    Cook Islands and French Polynesia 1
    Blue Lorikeet.

    Society Islands 8
    Raiatea (Grey-green) Fruit-dove (west), Grey-green Fruit-dove (Moorea and Tahiti), Tahiti (Polynesian) Swiftlet, Moorea (Society) Kingfisher, Tahiti (Society) Kingfisher, Tahiti Monarch, Tahiti Reed-warbler and Tahiti (Pacific) Swallow (Moorea and Tahiti).

    (Moorea Reed-warbler is probably extinct)

    Tuamotu Archipelago 7
    Polynesian Ground-dove, Polynesian Imperial-pigeon (recent records only from Makatea), Makatea Fruit-dove, Atoll Fruit-dove, Tuamotu Sandpiper, Niau Kingfisher and Tuamotu Reed-warbler.

    Marquesas Islands 12
    Marquesas Ground-dove (Hatutu and Fatu Huku), Nukuhiva Imperial-pigeon, White-capped Fruit-dove, Marquesas (Polynesian) Swiftlet, Marquesas Kingfisher, Ultramarine Lorikeet, Iphis Monarch (Ua Huka), Fatu Hiva Monarch, Ua Pou Monarch, Marquesas Monarch (Mohotani), Southern Marquesan Reed-warbler and Northern Marquesan Reed-warbler.

    Austral Islands 4
    Rapa Fruit-dove, Rapa Shearwater, Rimatara (Kuhl’s) Lorikeet (introduced to Cook and Line Islands) and Rimatara Reed-warbler.

    Henderson 4
    Henderson Fruit-dove, Henderson Crake, Henderson (Stephen’s) Lorikeet and Henderson Reed-warbler.

    (Henderson Petrel breeds (mainly May to September) on this island and, apparently, on the southern Tuamotus in French Polynesia, Easter Island and perhaps elsewhere, ranging at sea in this area of the east Pacific)

    Pitcairn 1
    Pitcairn Reed-warbler.

    HAWAII (Main islands) 26
    Widespread 8
    Hawaiian Goose, Hawaiian Duck, Hawaiian Coot, Hawaiian Hawk, Hawaiian Elepaio, Hawaiian Amakihi, Iiwi and Apapane.

    (Ou is presumed extinct)

    (Newell’s Shearwater is a breeding endemic (June to October) that ranges at sea, mainly east and south of the islands, and Hawaiian Petrel is a breeding endemic (April to October) that ranges widely at sea, mainly across the east Pacific)

    Hawaii (Big) Island 5
    Omao, Palila, Akiapolaau, Hawaiian Creeper and Hawaiian Akepa.

    Maui 4
    Maui Alauahio, Maui Nukupuu, Maui Parrotbill and Akohekohe.

    (Maui Akepa is presumed extinct)

    Molokai 1

    Oahu 2
    Oahu Elepaio and Oahu Amakihi.

    (Oahu Alauahio is presumed extinct)

    Kauai 6
    Kauai Elepaio, Puaiohi, Akikiki, Anianiau, Akekee and Kauai Amakihi.

    (Kauai Nukupuu is presumed extinct)

    Northwestern Islands 4
    Laysan Duck (Laysan Island, and reintroduced to Kure and Midway Atolls), Millerbird (Nihoa, and reintroduced to Laysan), Laysan Finch (Laysan, and introduced to Pearl and Hermes Atolls) and Nihoa Finch (Nihoa only).